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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What portal of entry does most infections occur?
respiratory tract-more infections occur each year than any other portal.
How does the infection occur?
by inspiration of microbe laden resp. droplets expelled by coupghing or sneezing
How is the spead of infection limited?
organisms dry quickly, spreading is limited to people in close proximity.
Give example of direct transmission
contaminated saliva....kissing.
What is connected at the rear of the mouth?
oral and nasal cavities.
Name some ways of protection
mask, gloves and washing hands
What type of room is a pt placed in to prevent the spread of disease?
negative air pressure
Characteristics of the Tuberculosis bacterium
neither gram-neg. or gram-pos
waxy cell envelope
How is TB diagnosed?
tine test, Mantoux test, sputum and CXR
What is the causative agent for TB?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis is...?
rod shaped
gram pos. like organism
Discribe M. tuberculosis' cell
typical cytoplasmic membrane
peptidoglcan cell wall layers
waxy lipids make up more than half of the envelope
What is unique about M. tuberculosis'cell wall?
waxy chemical, that makes the organism impermeable to Gram's staining.
What is TB?
invasion of the lung accompanied by tissue destruction.
How is current or prior TB infection detected?
Mantoux or tine test-tuburcular antigens are injected under the skin surface.
PPD stands for what?
purified protein derivative
When is the test read?
24-48 hours
Describe if positive.
hard raised area.\
Why is the area hard?
The area is hard due to T cells and phagocytes recruted by T cells
What can't the PPD differentiate?
past and current infection
How is active TB diagnosed?
How long does it take to culture for TB?
6 weeks
How is TB spread?
respiratory droplets
TB symptoms
fever, night sweats, coughing weight loss
Where does TB locate itself?
tubercles-hard foci in the lung tissue
How is TB treated?
triple antibiotic therapy for 6 months to 2 years.
What should be done in addition to the meds, and why?
liver function tests, because the meds are hard on the liver
If a TB pt. is immunocompromised, what could happen?
the disease could reappear.
Many AIDS pts. died from TB
What caused the increase of TB?
AIDS and resistence
What is MRTB?
multiply resistant TB