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15 Cards in this Set

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Describe the general characteristics of the genus Pseudomonas?
Oxidase +, G- straight rods, polar flagella, obligate aerobes easily grown anywhere with water (mops, hot tubs, H20 supply) & assoc. with plant material
-Often cause enteric disease
Which Psuedomonas species is more clinically important? Describe distinguishing features of this bug
P. aeruginosa
Grape-like smell
Produces 2 water-soluble pigments: Pyocyanin (bluish green) & Fluorescin (greenish-yellow)
Infections caused by P. aeruginosa?
Opportunistic pathogen - cause of death in immunosuppresed pts.
Resisant to multiple antibiotics.
Septicemia, endocarditis, UTIs, gastroenteritis, infections of lungs, ear, eye, musculosketal and burn wounds
Virulence factors of P. aeruginosa?
Pili, polysaccharids capsule, Exotoxin A (similiar to diptheria toxin), Exoenzyme S (effector protin & collapses cytoskeleton), Cytotoxin(pore forming, kills PMNs), Extracellular proteases (cyto- & hemolysins, help spread infection), Phospholipase, Endotoxin
Describe the general charcteristics of the genus Vibrio
Oxidase +, G- curved rod, 1 flagellum, like pH 9, typically cause enteric symptoms
What are the 2 clinically important species of Vibrio?
V. Cholerae & V. parahaemolyticus (V. vulnificus & V. alginolyticus also cause some wound infections)
How is V. cholerae classified?
139 serotypes (O1-O139). Epidemics of cholera by O1 and more receitnly by O139. O1 has 2 biotypes, each with 3 subtypes (Ogawa, Inaba, Hikojima).
How is Cholera spread? What regions is it endemic?
V. cholerae is motile, living in water or food, free in brackish water & in shellfish Very high infection dose - about 10^9.
Parts of Asia,sometimes Africa, India & Bangledesh.
Also in S. America & Mexico
Pathogenesis of V. Cholerae?
Toxin of 1 A and 5 B subunits. B delivers A into cells to cause disruption of ions transport.
Cl & bicarb hypersecreted with water - up to 15-20 L of watery diarrhea with flecks of mucus/day leads to hypovolemic shock.
Describe V. parahaemolyticus
Halophilic (salt loving, 8%), freeliving in costal waters/estuaries everywhere.
Gastroenteritis usually from eating infected, inproperly coods seafood.
Describe V. parahaemolyticus infection
Often seen 5-92 hrs after eating infected sushi, explosive diarrhea (self-limiting, supportive tx only)
Significance of V. vulnificus?
Particularly virulent, causes rapidly progressing wound infections after exposure to contaminated seawater OR septicemia after eating raw oysters (usually in pts with liver disease).
Septicemia- 50% die if antibiotic tx delayed.
Describe characteristics of genus Campylobater
(No "F" sound in name!) Oxidase +, G-, highly motile, slender curved rod. Microaerophilic & suppressed by other flora In food, water & animals
Name 2 species of Campylobacter that are infectious. Results?
C. jejuni - #1 cause of bacterial diarrhea - usually self-limiting w/in 7 days.
C. fetus - bacteremic infection in immunocompromised pts.
Describe genus Helicobacter
G-, highly motile, Oxidase +, very curved rod, microaerophili & hard to grow in culture. Can grow at very low pH due to Urease (makes ammonia) Found in stomach mucosa, secretes exotoxin which induces inflammation