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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Release of sequestered antigens
- Tissue antigens not seen by developing T cells (sequestered) will not induce tolerance
- Exposure of T cells to normally sequestered antigens at a later time may result in their activation
- This can occur due to TRAUMA or INFECTIOUS AGENTS
Molecular mimicry
- Pathogens express proteisn with regions similar to self components
- Post rabies encephalitis, rheumatic fever, viral peptides - influenza, polyoma, adenovirus, etc
Examples of ectopic expression of MHC
- IDDM, Graves disease, IFN gamma
Polyclonal B cell activation
- Non-specific polyclonal activation - gram negatives, CMV, EBV can cause this
- Transcriptional activator in thymus responsible for inducing expression of 200-1200 genes for organ specific antigen
- Allows T cells to see self antigens in thymus to aid in negative selection
- When AIRE is lacking antigens are not present in thymus, potential self reactive T cells are not removed causing autoimmune reactions in peripheral organs
- Results in AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME - affected individuals develop wide range of autoantibodies against endocrine glands, liver and skin, blood cells and platelets
Myasthenia Gravis is _ hypersensitivity
Type II - non-cytotoxic
HLA type for MG
Symptoms of MG
- Progressive muscle weakness, droopy eyelids, double vision, eventually other face muscles weaken and similar effects can occur on chest muscles which can impair breathing
In MG auto antibodies are specific for _
Ach receptor - causes activation of complement and inflammation
MG is diagnosed via _
Anti- Ach antibodies in serum
MG is treated with _
- Anti-cholinesterases
- Immunosuppression
- Plasmapheresis
- Thymus removal
RA is _ hypersensitivity
Type III
HLA for RA
Rheumatoid factor is _
IgM antibody specific for Fc portion of IgG
Diagnosis of RA
- Via RF (not always present), elevated IgG and IgM, examination of joint fluid
Treatment of RA
NSAIDS, corticosteroids, immunosupression, gold therapy, anti-TNF alpha
SLE is _ hypersensitivity
Type III
Pattern of necrosis in SLE
Lumpy bumpy pattern of immune complexes
Specific test for SLE
anti- DS DNA
Double vision + spasticity is sign of _ while double vision+ muscle weakness is sign of _
Double vision + spasticity = MS

Double vision + muscle weakness = MG
MS is type _ hypersensitivity
Type IV
Symptoms of MS
- Motor weakness, impaired vision, lack of coordination, spasticity
Antibodies in MS are against _
Myelin basic protein
Diagnosis of MS
Treatment of MS
- IFN beta - doesnt remove existing lesions, prevent future ones - anti-viral
- Corticosteroids and immunosuppression
Which disease are associated with HLA B27
Ankylosing spondylitis + Reiters syndrome
Autoimmune mechanisms of Ankylosing spondylitis
- Antibodies formed in response to Klebsiella, Shigella or Yersinia react with spine - eventual fusion of spine
Reiters syndrome autoimmune mechanism
- Cross reacting Ab's to many STD's - fever, arthritis, conjunctivitis
Ankylosing spondylitis and Reiters syndrome exhibit _
Molecular mimicry
Which autoimmune diseases are more common in males
Ankylosing spondylitis and Reiters syndrome
Reiters syndrome triad
Arthritis, conjunctivitus
_ may be early target in Reiters syndrome
Septic (infective ) arthritis vs Reactive arthritis
Septic infective - direct invasion of joint space by microorganisms
Reactive arthritis - inflammatory response from infection somewhere else in the body