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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Streptococcus sp.
chains of spheres

strep throat and
pneumonia
Proteus vulgaris
rods (stained to show peritrichous flagella)

urinary tract infections
Clostridium sp.
endospore producing rods

tetanus
botulism
gas gangrene
Escherichia coli
rods

urinary tract infections
gastroenteritis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae

hint: 2 r's in gonorrhoeae, prefix that means two is what?
diplococcus arrangement

gonorrhoea
Borrelia burgdorferii

hint: two r's
two t's
spirochette

lyme disease
Bacillus anthracis
endospore producing rods

anthrax
Vibrio cholera

hint: the "c"
curved rods

cholera
Staphylococcus aureus
clusters of spheres

furuncles
carbuncles
scaled skin syndrome
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
palisade arrangement of rods; picket fence or Chinese letter pattern

diphtheria
Mycobacterium sp.
rods

leprosy
tuberculosis
Treponema pallidum
spirochette

syphillis
pupose of

differential stain
show differences in structure
the primary stain for gram stain is
crystal violet
basic
stains cells
Mordant (for gram stain)
grams iodine

causes tight interaction with organism (adheres better)
the most critical step in the gram stain procedure is
decolorizor
decolorizing does what?
removes color from gram negative bacteria

is 95% ethyl alcohol
counter stain

in regard to gram staining
gram negatives have no color so you must counter stain with saffernim to give the pink color
basic (simple) stain

negative stains
has a + charge

bacteria have a - charge

the attraction of opposite charges gives bacteria color
acid stains
negative stain

also called

background stain
have a - charge

bacteria have a - charge

the charges repel each other and colors the background and leaves the bacteria clear
the stain used for negative staining is
nigrasin
if you overdecolorize
you will have all clear cells, will not be able to properly distinguish negative from positive
crystal violet turns both + and - bacteria
violet
grams iodine
increasing the interaction between the bacteria and the dye
counter stain
gives gram - bacteria a red color

doesn't do anything to gram +
if you underdecolorize
you will end up with all violet cells indicating gram +

will falsely identify gram - and gram +
Bacillus cereus is
gram +

hot dog shaped rods

in pairs or chains
Enterobacter aerogenes is
gram -

single small rods
Escherichia coli is
gram -

rods
Serratia marcescens
gram -

single rods
Micrococcus luteus is
gram +

spheres in pairs
why are acid fast stains done
because we interested in diagnosing mycobacterium as major organisms
acid fast stains

stain what kind of cell walls
mycolic acid walls
mycolic acid walls are
hard to stain because of waxy wall
endospores don't.....
stain easily

they resist decolorization

for survival
the 2 genre that have endospores are
clostridium and

baccilus
germination is when
an endospore turns into a cell
sprogenesis or

sporulation is when
a cell creates (turns into) an endospore
malachite green is used to
stain endospores
safranin stains......what
cells

not endospores
malachite green is difficult because
it is hard to see endospores
what is the function of capsules
attachment

retard phagocytosis

prevent desication
capsules make bacterial cells more
virulent
often a pathogenic bacterium with a thick capsule wall will be
more virulent than a strain with little or no capsule since it protects against phagocytic activity of host's phagocytic cells

streptococcus pneumonaea is an example
the purpose of flagella stain is to
show true motility
monotrichous flagella
is on one end
lophotrichous flagella
are many flagella only on one end
amphitrichous flagella
is a single flagella on both ends
peritrichous flagella
are flagella located all around a cell
purpose of

subculture
transfer microbes from 1 culture media to another using aseptic technique
advantages of pipetting
measure the amount of material to move

do dilutions

dispence chemical reagents
types of pipettes
blow out (serological)

mohr measuring
with the blow out pipette
the final few drops of liquid must be emptied to deliver correct volume of liquid
with the mohr pipette
after the proper amount of liquid has been delivered, liquid will remain in the tip of the pipette and should not be eliminated
safety precautions for using the pipette
carry 2 handed to prevent puncture wounds

do not bend

opened end with cotton filter first
the yellow rings indicate
a serological pipette
mL on the pipette indicates
the total volume
1/1000

the fraction listed on the pipette indicates
gridation

how the pipette is divided
always measure where on the pipette
the bottom of the meniscus
when do you touch the pipette with bare hands?
never
ARM
SUPPORT THE NOSE PIECE AND BODY TUBE
BASE
SUPPORT THE ENTIRE SCOPE, IS THE BOTTOM BASE OF THE SCOPE
FEET
PROVIDE STABILITY AND REDUCE VIBRATION
OCULAR LENS
1. MAGNIFY 10X
2. LOOK THROUGH IT
REVOLVING NOSE PIECE
IS THE SILVER RING, HOLDS THE OBJECTIVES AND ALLOWS YOU TO CHANGE THE OBJECTIVE LENSES
SCAN OBJECTIVE, TOTAL MAGNIGICATION
40
SCAN OBJECTIVE MAGNIFICATION
4X
LOW POWER OBJECTIVE MAGNIFICATION
10X
LOW POWER OBJECTIVE TOTAL MAGNIFICATION
100
HIGH POWER OBJECTIVE MAGNIFICATION
40
HIGH POWER TOTAL MAGNIFICATION
400
OIL IMMERSION MAGNIFICATION
1000X
OIL IMMERSION TOTAL MAGNIFICATION
1000
OBJECTIVE LENSES
MAGNIFIES
DEFINE:
MAGNIFICATION
MAKE LARGER
DEFINE:
TOTAL MAGNIFICATION
TOTAL OF TWO LENSES: THE OCULAR TIMES THE OBJECTIVE
FUNCTION:
STAGE
WHERE SLIDES ARE PLACED
FUNCTION:
MECHANICAL STAGE
MOVES AND POSITIONS THE SLIDE
MECHANICAL STAGE CONTROL KNOBS
CONTROL THE POSITION OF THE SLIDE
STAGE CLIP
SECURES THE SLIDE
SCREWS: LOCATED UNDER THE STAGE AT THE 10 & 2 LOCATION
CONTROLS THE AIM OF THE LIGHT BEAM
SCREWS: LOCATED AT 12 O'CLOCK
HOLDS THE CONDENSER
CONDENSER LENS
CONDENSES LIGHT
FOCUSES LIGHT TO WHERE THE SLIDE / SPECIMEN IS
FILTER--ON CONDENSER
FILTERS OUT LOW ENERGY LIGHT TO GIVE THE BEST HIGH ENERGY LIGHT
IRIS / DIAPHRAGM

IN CONDENSER
CONTROLS HOW MUCH LIGHT GET THROUGH (A LEVER)
CONDENSER CONTROL KNOB
CONTROLS CONDENSER POSITION
LIGHT INTENSITY WHEEL
CONTROLS LIGHT INTENSITY
1 = NONE
HIGH POWER = 4-6
OIL IMMERSION 8-10
FINE ADJUSTMENT
FINE TUNE ADJUSTMENT

USE IN OIL IMMERSION
COURSE ADJUSTMENT
ROUGH TUNE

USE IN ALL OBJECTIVE EXCEPT OIL IMMERSION
DEFINE

RESOLUTION
CLARITY, THE ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH TWO POINTS AS SEPARATE POINTS
TIPS FOR IMPROVING RESOLUTION
1. FOCUS
2. CLEAN LENSES, SLIDE
3. ADJUST LIGHT INTENSITY
4. ADJUST IRIS / DIAPHRAGM
5. FILTERS
6. CONDENSER ALL THE WAY UP?
7. OIL..MAKE SURE OIL IS IN THE RIGHT PLACE
DEFINE

PARFOCAL
WHEN FOCUSING ON LOW POWER THE OBJECT SHOULD BE FOCUSES IN A HIGHER POWER AND SHOULD ONLY NEED FINE TUNING
DEFINE

PARCENTRIC
IF CENTERED ON LOW POWER SHOULD BE CENTERED IN HIGHER POWER
DEFINE

FIELD OF VIEW
AREA WITHIN EACH OBJECTIVE; THE VIEWING ARE DECREASES AS MAGNIFICATION INCREASES
WORKING DISTANCE
THE TIP OF THE OBJECTIVE TO THE SLIDE SURFACE; THE HIGHER THE OBJECTIVE THE LOWER THE WORKING DISTANCE
COURSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB IS NEVER TO BE USED ON WHICH OBJECTIVE (S)?
HIGH POWER

OIL IMMERSION
HANGING DROP SLIDE

FUNCTION

DESCRIPTION
ALLOWS YOU TO LOOK AT MOTILITY

IS A SLIDE WITH A DEPRESSED AREA
DEFINE

NONMOTILE
NOT MOVING

COCCUS ORGANISMS MOVE ERRATICALLY IN THEIR AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS
DEFINE

BROWNIAN MOVEMENT
ERRATIC MOVEMENTS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS; FROM THE RANDOM MOTION OF WATER MOLECULES BOMBARDING THE BACTERIA CAUSING THEM TO MOVE
DEFINE

TRUE MOTILITY
ORGANISMS THAT CAN MOVED THEMSELVES
TYPES OF TRUE MOTILITY
1. FLAGELLAR--HAVE FLAGELLA
2. CORK SCREW--SPIROCHETTES HAVE AXIAL FILAMENTS
3. GLIDING MOTION---GLIDES OVER MOIST SURFACES
media

sterilization is
process of rendering a medium or material free of all forms of life
media

autoclaving
is steam under pressure

121 degree's c under 15 ob psi for 15 mins+
media

dry heat sterilization
good for surgical or dental instruments

temp 160-170 ' celcius for 2 hrs+, no temp above 180'c
media

bacteriological filter
removes bacteria, larger microorganisms from the solution and sterilizes w/o heat
media

uv radiation
great of surfaces

drawback--> not good for penetrating
media

ETO

ethylene oxide
good for penetration

good for packing material

animal hide
hills by covalently attaching cell proteins
nutrient preps
give organism nutrients and environment to grow
what are the 3 media types
broth

semisolid

solid
agar makes media
solid
liquid media
grows large numbers of bacteria/microbes

for biochemical testing
fermentation studies (turns from red to yellow)
semisolid media
can check for motility

growing organisms that don't like oxygen
solid media
grow a lot of bacteria at the surface

maintain pure cultures

can store things in biochemical test
agar plate
petri dish
nutrient prep with agar in it
agar deep
test tube

must go into autoclave
agar slant
cools in a slanted position to allow more growing surface area
agar pour
when liquified pours into a plate
when a substance is chemically defined
it is composed of known amounts of pure chemicals
when a substance is complex/ undefined media
will have peptone
or extract in the name
growth patterns

facultative
turbid and diffuse

grows anywhere
growth patterns

aeorobic
organism are located at the top close to the surface
growth patterns

anaerobic
settles on the bottoms
growth patterns

micro arophiles
just below the surface, none beneath the center

little air lovers
growth patterns

floculance
puff balls layered below the surface
media types

broad spectrum microbes
grows a lot of different things
media types
general purpose
has nutrients that a lot of things like
what are the types of general purpose media
nutrient agar (NA)
nutrient broth (NB)
tryptic soy agar (TSA)
tryptic soy broth (TSB)
selective media does what
inhibits growth of certain microbes

encourages growth of others
what are the four selective media names
eosin methyline blue EMB

Phenylethanol agar PEA

Mannitol salts agar MSA

Sabarourands agar
selective media

EMB is and does?
eosin methyline blue

inhibits gram + while encouraging Gram -
selective media

PEA
phenylethanol agar

inhibits gram -
encourages gram +
selective media

MSA
selective for pathogenic staphylococcus

inhibits others bc of salt content- is 72% salt

Mannitol salts agar
selective media

SA
sabourand's agar

isolation of fungi

inhibits bacteria
drops pH
differential media

DOES WHAT
GROWS SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROBES BUT HIGHLIGHTS DIFFERENCES
differential media

THREE TYPES OF BA
BLOOD AGAR
ALPHA HEMOLYSIS

BETA HEMOLYSIS

GAMMA HEMOLYSIS
differential media

ALPHA HEMOLYSIS
PARTIALLY DIGEST RBC'S LEAVING A GREENISH DISCOLORATION AROUND COLONIES
differential media

BETA HEMOLYSIS
COMPLETELY DIGEST RBC'S PRODUCING CLEAR ZONES AROUND COLONIES
differential media

GAMMA HEMOLYSIS
NO RBC DIGESTION, AGAR APPEARS UNCHANGED EVEN THOUGH LYSIS OCCURS
differential media

EMB

EOSINMETHYLENE BLUE
DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN LACTOSE FERMENTERS AND LACTOSE NONFERMENTERS
differential media

MSA

MANNITOL SALTS AGAR
DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MANNITOL FERMENTERS AND NONFERMENTERS
REDUCING MEDIA
FAVORS ANAEROBIC ACTIVITY

ABSORBS OXYGEN OR REDUCES THE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN
differential media

DOES WHAT
GROWS SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROBES BUT HIGHLIGHTS DIFFERENCES
REDUCING MEDIA

THE MAIN REDUCING MEDIA IS
THIOGLYCOLLATE BROTH
differential media

THREE TYPES OF BA
BLOOD AGAR
ALPHA HEMOLYSIS

BETA HEMOLYSIS

GAMMA HEMOLYSIS
differential media

ALPHA HEMOLYSIS
PARTIALLY DIGEST RBC'S LEAVING A GREENISH DISCOLORATION AROUND COLONIES
differential media

BETA HEMOLYSIS
COMPLETELY DIGEST RBC'S PRODUCING CLEAR ZONES AROUND COLONIES
differential media

GAMMA HEMOLYSIS
NO RBC DIGESTION, AGAR APPEARS UNCHANGED EVEN THOUGH LYSIS OCCURS
differential media

EMB

EOSINMETHYLENE BLUE
DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN LACTOSE FERMENTERS AND LACTOSE NONFERMENTERS
differential media

MSA

MANNITOL SALTS AGAR
DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MANNITOL FERMENTERS AND NONFERMENTERS
REDUCING MEDIA
FAVORS ANAEROBIC ACTIVITY

ABSORBS OXYGEN OR REDUCES THE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN
REDUCING MEDIA

THE MAIN REDUCING MEDIA IS
THIOGLYCOLLATE BROTH