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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what percentage of deaths is due to infectious disease and what are 2 ex of respiratory diseases that kill?
25% of deaths
acute respiratory infection (pneumonia, influenza) and Tb
respiratory tract most common site of infection by pathogens b/c of exposure
what are 3 components of the host defense system against respiratory infections?
mucociliary lining of nose
adenoids and tonsils (URT)
mucus and cilia of LRT (ciliary elevator)
what are 2 defenses that have to be evaded for resp tract infection?
avoid physical defenses (mucus of URT)
if deposited in LRT, avoid phagocytosis or survive, mult in phagocyte
pathogenic mxn to initiate resp tract disease (4)
1. adherence (ex: M proteins and hemagglutinins)
2. extracellular toxins
3. intracellular growth (viruses)
4. evade host defenses (capsules)
examples of URI (5)
common cold
pharyngitis
tonsilitis
sinusitis
otitis media
airway infections (6)
diphtheria
whooping cough
laryngo-tracheo bronchitis (croup): acute viral infection in kids
influenza (little nasal discharge v. common cold)
bronchitis
bronchiolitis (terminal bronchioles)
ex of LRI (3)
pneumonia
bronchopneumonia
pulmonary Tb
what are most resp tract infections caused by? which type of infection is more serious?
MOST are viral (common cold, 90% pharyngitis, croup, bronchitis)
bacterial are more serious (pneumonia) b/c viral are self-limiting
viral causes of pharyngitis (4)
adenovirus
HSV
coxsackieviruses
epstein-barr virus
bacterial causes of pharyngitis (3)
strep pyogenes
corynebacterium diphtheriae
neisseria gonorrhea (rare)
viral causes of the common cold (6)
rhinovirus
coronavirus
adenovirus
myxovirus
echovirus
coxsackie virus
bacterial causes of common cold (2)
mycoplasma pneumonia
chlamydophila pneumonia
causes of sinusitis (3)
strep pneumonia
haemophilus influenza
moraxella catarrhalis
bacterial causes of otitis media (3)
same as sinusitis:
strep pneumonia
haemophilus influenza
moraxella catarrhalis
viral causes of otitis media (2)
respiratory syncytial virus
rhinovirus
cause of diphtheria
corynebacterium diphtheria
cause of whooping cough
bordetella pertussis
cause of epiglottitis
Haemophilus influenza
causes of croup (2)
parainfluenza viruses
respiratory syncytial virus
what is the largest component of our normal flora? some examples?
bacteria: streptococci, staphylococci, lactobacilli, bacteroides, corynebacteria, actinomyces, mycoplasmas
are normal flora considered pathogens?
NO! but if they get to diff sites they can be opportunistic pathogens
what are some examples of normal flora that are potential pathogens? (10)
staph aureus
strep mutans, pneumonia, pyogenes
enterococcus fecalis
neisseria meningitidis
e coli
pseudomonas aerunginosa
haemophilus influenza
clostridium