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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why is epidemiology important?
ID cause of disease, risk factors, treatment, prevention
describe clinical pattern of disease
sensitivity
how often a test gives us pos result for infected ppl
TP/(TP+FN)
when do you get a lot of false negatives?
with a low sensitivity test; (high specificity test?)
specificity
how often a test gives a neg result for uninfected ppl
TN/(TN+FP)
a test with low specificity would result in a lot of ___?
false positives
what is the incubation period?
time b/w exposure and onset of sx
how can pt history and incubation period help narrow down the cause of disease?
knowing the incubation period can help eliminate toxin (ex: food poisoning) if the onset wasnt for a week after exposure
what is the prodromal period?
early in infection; not feeling well
ex: malaise, anorexia, sore throat (not really disease yet)
what is the difference b/w signs and symptoms?
signs are measurable (fever, urticaria, swollen lymph nodes etc; something the physician can observe)
symptoms: subjective (malaise, soreness, headache, nausea)
what is a syndrome?
a group of s/s associated with disease state
ex: pharyngitis (syndrome-can be caused by many organisms) vs. measles (disease)
transmission routes (8)
1.person to person
2.airborne
3.waterborne
4.food
5.vector
parenteral(prick-mosquito or 6.needle)
7.fomites (inanimate obj)
8.zoonoses
what types of tranmission can occur via respiratory droplets?
person to person
airborne
what type of transmission can occur vis insects?
vector-borne
parenteral
what's another name for the primary case?
index case
indiv(s) who bring disease to population
cahracteristics of a point-source outbreak
all exposed at once
sudden occurence of cases
short incubation time
all cases within one incubation period
outbreak stops (unless secondary spread)
day/case curve has steep slope
ex: contaminated food, water
characteristics of propagated outbreaks
person-to-person; often respiratory transmission (ex: chicken pox)
2ndary cases appear one incubation period after peak of first wave
successive waves get taller (more ppl infected)
define primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies; which is the best?
primary: BEST PREVENTION STRATEGY; prevent occurrence of disease (ex:vaccines)
secondary: cure, block spread, slow progress
tertiary: limit disability, provide rehab (ex: botulism antitoxin)
what are some examples of tools for disease intervention? (6)
1. public education (1 or 2)
2. vaccines (active immunization; 1 or 2)
3. IG (passive immunization; 2)
4. prophylactic antibodies (for asx ppl who were exposed)
5. vector control (1)
6. quarantine (2)
what are some examples of diseases that need to be immediately reported?
outbreaks, exotic illnesses
ex: anthrax, botulism, pertussis, polio, bacterial meningitis
diseases reported within a day?
brucellosis
HAV
TB
diseases reported weekly?
AIDS
chickenpox
hantavirus
mumps