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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is another name for common cold?
acute coryza
what viruses are assoc with acute coryza?
picornaviruses (rhinovirus and enterovirus)
resp syncytial viruses
why is there such a lg frequency of acute coryza?
lg number agents
reinfections (many serotypes)
clinical charac of acute coryza; tx
afebrile (no fever)
infected resp tract (sneezing, sore throat, cough)
inflamm of all/any airways tx is supportive
what are the 2 most common causes of acute coryza?
how does season factor into the differential for acute coryza?
summer-> fall: rhinovirus
winter->spring: coronavirus
reservoir, transmission, prevention of acute coryza
reservoir-upper airway kids
spread by dir contact, airborne
prevention-handwashing, control aerosol spread, no vaccine
what is the breakdown of the Picornaviridae family?
2 groups within:
1. enterovirus (polio, cocksackie, Hep A...)
2. rhinovirus
charac of rhinovirus
picornaviridae family
non-enveloped icosahedral (survival in environ)
+sense RNA
replicate in cytoplasm (RNA-dep RNA poly)
acid labile
resists drying, detergents
prefers cooler temps (URT)
~100 serotypes
what is the host receptor for rhinoviruses?
transmission of rhinoviruses
direct contact
inhaled aerosols
fomites (non enveloped)
incubation and duration of coryza caused by rhinovirus
incubation: 2 days
lasts 7 days
complications of rhinovirus infections
risk factor for bacterial sinusitis and otitis media
may precipitate asthma
diagnosing rhinovirus infections
isolated in swabs, saliva, aspirates (days before to 1 weeks after)
serology-confirmation and assessment
culture and neutralization assay (type specific immunity)
tx anc control of rhinovirus infections
relieve sx
handwash, disinfect
no vaccine
charac coronavirus
+sense RNA
pleomorphic (budding)
prominent peplomers in EM-> crown
only 2 serogroups cause coryza
transmission-airborne droplets
what other disease does coronavirus cause?
coronavirus infection in acute coryza
infected ciliated epithelium of URT-> inflammation, diarrhea (may survive in GI)
why is there a lot of reinfection by coronavirus?
anitbodies arent protective
acute rhinosinusitis
most viral
unilateral face pain -> bacterial
hold on antibiotics; sx > 7 days
parainfluenza virus syndromes
common cold
what is croup
laryngitis and laryngotracheobronchitis
laryngitis: s/s
tickled, sore throat
dry cough
cause and risk factors for laryngitis
risk-having resp infection
tx of laryngitis
infant w/ laryngitis assoc with croup: coticosteroid
croup: s/s
physical exam
difficulty breathing
swollen vocal cords
prolonged inspiration/expiration
risk factors and differential (other causes of airway obstruction) for croup
3 mos to 5 yo
diphtheria, epiglottitis
causes of croup
parainfluenza (80%)
influenza virus
tx croup
viral: self-limiting; children req supportive care
bacterial: prompt tx (steroids)
air vaporizer, acetaminophen
serious croup
hospitalization: epinephrine and oral steroids
O2 and humidity, intubation, IV fluids
what is the primary cause of croup?
parainfluenza virus
general charac of croup
paramyxovirus (genus)
ss neg sense RNA
replicates in cytoplasm
enveloped, buds off PM
what are the peplomers on parainfluenza and what is their fxn?
F protein: fusion with PM to enter; pH independent
HN: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase; bind host cell receptor
reservoir and transmission of parainfluenza virus
inhalation of aerosol, person person contact
inactivation: dryness, acid, detergent
infection, presentation with parainfluenza virus
seal bark
steeple sign on Xray
hypoxia, obstruction, inspiratory stridor
can spread through bronchial tree from larynx
remains local, not systemic
who is at risk and why is there reinfection?
kids 6 mos to 12 yo
only short-term immunity after infection->reinfection; also, serotypes
incubatory carriers (asx but shedding before onset of disease
diagnosis of parainfluenza in croup: from where is the best specimen taken?
nasopharyngeal secretions
poor rapid tests (EM, immunoflourescence)-low sensitivity (high FN)
virus isolation-culture, hemadsorption on infected cells
serology-hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), hemadsorption inhibition test, C' fixation (CFT),
what is a hemadsorption test looking for? what abt hemadsorption inhibition test? what is the basis of the test?
hemadsorption- virus
hemadsorption inhibition- pt Ig
basis: RBCs adsorb to virus-infected cells; inhibition relies on pt serum (unknown)and Ig blocking viral proteins in host cell mbr and preventing attachment of RBCs (all washed away)
HAI: basis
hemagglutination inhibition-looking for pt serum Ig (unknown)
need acute and convalescent titers (X4 to det current infection)
if sera have Ig that can bind virus (known reagent), virus cant bind RBCs-> button (positive inhibition)
no Ig to virus, virus binds RBCs->pale pink, diffuse
complement fixation test
testing for Ig in pt sera
add sera (Ig?) plus known Ag and C'; mix with RBCs plus Ig to RBCs
hemolysis of RBCs: no IC formed in first mix (no pt Ig) so RBC IC was lysed by C'
no hemolysis: C' consumed in first mix by IC with pt Ig
how do you read a HAI dilution plate?
left(most concentrated)-> right (least)
compare acute with convalescent titers
the ability of the pt sera to inhibit agglutination at a more diluted concentration (v. acute)indicates an increase in titer
what does it mean if there is no difference b/w HAI in acute and convalescent titers?
that the pt does not have Ig to the virus (known) used as the reagent; pt's disease is NOT being caused by reagent virus
is there a vaccine for parainfluenza virus?
charac of mumps virus
paramyxoviridae (family)
rubelavirus (genus)
ss neg sense RNA
enveloped; buds from PM; pH independent
ONE antigenic type->good vaccine
transmission of mumps virus
inhalation of droplets
person to person contact
spread of mumps in disease
replicate in nasopharynx epithelial cells AND regional LN
systemic (viremia)
clinical diease in mumps
parotitis and orchitis (unilateral)
incubatory carriers (contagious)
diagnosis of mumps
clinical presentation
throat swab, culture, virus isolation
presence of giant cells AND hemadsorption
what distinguishes mumps from respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) diagnostically?
both form giant cells but only mumps has hemadsorption
tx and prevention of mumps
tx sx (analgesics)
-T cell mediated (CD8) to prevent spread of virus w/o an extracellular phase
-mucosal immunity