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14 Cards in this Set

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why are fungi and parasites harder to target with antimicrobial agents?
because they are eukaryotic, there is a greater chance of side effects due to damage to our own cells in addition to the microorganism.
sterilization vs. disinfection
sterilization: eliminates ALL viable microorganisms (including viruses)
disinfection: destroys vegetative PATHOGENS (not endospores)
what is the benefit of a disinfectant? where would you use it?
reduces infectious dose present on inanimate objects; antiseptic used on animate objects
what are the 2 methods of action of antibacterial agents?
bacteriostatic: prevents GROWTH of bacteria
bactericidal: DESTROYS bacteria (some destroy endospores)
what is the problem with bactericidal agents?
maybe deleterious to host; lysis of bacteria (ex: G-) may release harmful components (ex: LPS) which can cause problematic side effects (ex: endotoxic shock)
what is the benefit of bacteriostatic agents?
maybe be sufficient for some microorganisms without causing harm to host; maybe be successful diminishing disease b/c many disease states dep on infectious dose
modes of action for sterilzation and disinfection
denature proteins
dessication
alkylation-fix tissue
oxidation
solubilization (lipids)
disrupt nucleic acids
what are ex. of dry and moist heat used in antimicrobials?
dry-flame
moist-autoclave
both can sterilize
when would you want to use filtration as a sterilization technique? what is its success based on?
good for bacteria; harder to sterilize for viruses
depends on pore size and affinity for nucleic acids
what is an ex. of a halogen and what can it do?
clorine (bleach)
destroys nucleic acid
what are quartenary ammonium compounds (QUATS)?
detergents used for antimicrobials
what are 3 factors that affect microbial control?
1.nature of microorganism
2.number of microorg starting with
3.concentration of antimicrobial agent
how does the nature of the microorg affect its control?
dep on sensitivity of the microorg to the agent and the agent's mxn of control
what are 3 factors in determining the concentration of the antimicrobial agent?
1. dosage: safe intial concentration; how often given
2. half-life: how quickly is it excreted from the body? (also det. freq of dose)
3. absorption: target tissue (ex: CNS and BBB)