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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acute viral hepatitis cause systemic infection with most of the pathology isolated to the ______
Acute viral hepatitis infection can be asymptomatic OR ____ ; acute OR chronic
Acute viral hepatitis transmitted either through _____ or through ________ contamination (depending on virus)
Hepatitis A virus(HAV)is ____

spread via _____ transmission
Hep A virus replicates in hepatocytes, released into bile and enters stool
large quantities of virus released before symptoms of _________ (damage to liver and release of liver enzymes)
most of HAV pathology related to immune response.
virus is _______
HAV is not associated with chronic infection
~40% of all cases of _______ hepatitis
Diagnosis of HAV is ________
ELISA detecting anti-HAV ____
serological testing
HAV is sometimes _______ to identify initial source (because symptoms don’t appear for a couple weeks)
Prevention/Treatment of HAV:
-avoid uncooked shellfish
-immune serum globulin (gamma-globulin)
HAV is from the the _________ family
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is also called ______ hepatitis
HBV is of the ______ family
HBV is enveloped, circular, partially _______
dsDNA virus
HBV produces a _________ (replicates via an RNA-intermediate)
reverse transcriptase
HBV viral genome surrounded by the hepatitis B core antigens (___&___) which is surrounded by the envelope that has the hepatitis B surface antigen (____)
HBcAg & HBeAg
complete HBV virus called the _______
Dane particle
HBV viral genome can _____ into host chromosome
HBV non-infectious particles may be antigenic ______
depending on patients immune response, HBV can be:
_______or _____
_______or _____
acute or chronic
asymptomatic or symptomatic
detection of ______ = active infection
HBsAg, HBeAg
HBV infectious virus is found primarily in ______. but can be in saliva, semen, milk, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid
after HBVinfection, symptoms may take ___ months to show
HBV symptoms due to ______ immune response
cell mediated
HBcAg is a prominent ______
T cell epitope
~25% of people infected with HBV will be ________
~90% will ________
1% develop ______ (more severe liver symptoms (bleeding, ascites))
remainder develop ________
resolve infection
fulminant hepatitis
chronic infection
HBV chronic infection identified by _____ for longer than 6 months
30% of those with HBV chronic infection will have _________
chronic active hepatitis
HBV chronic infection may progress to __________
primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC)
~70% of those with HBV chronic infection will have ________ (“passive” hepatitis, carriers with few symptoms)
chronic persistent hepatitis
HBV diagnosis
1) clinical symptoms + elevated liver enzymes
2) identification of HBsAg & HBeAg in blood (produced/secreted during viral replication)
3) IgM antibodies against HBcAg is best for detecting recent/ongoing acute infection
4) chronic infection detected by presence of HBeAg & HBsAg and often a lack of antibodies against these proteins (can see Abs to HBcAg)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is of the _______ family
Hepacivirus (Flaviviridae)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped, _____ virus
HCV interrupts _________ via cytokines (TNFa; IFNa) and CTLs = survival of infected cell; persistent infection
apoptotic signals
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread primarily via ________
IVDU; sexual contact
many cases of HCV become ____
long term immunologic/inflammatory damage in HCV may be the major factor in _________
PHC (hepatocellular carcinoma)
acute hepatitis with resolution/recovery _____
of cases of HCV
chronic persistent infection, pathology later in life ~70% of cases of HCV.
Initial infection is mostly asymptomatic later, _______ is a common symptom
often progresses to cirrhosis and/or liver failure after 20 years
PHC in 5% of chronically infected individuals
chronic fatigue
in HCV, severe rapid progression to cirrhosis ____
of cases
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)diagnosis
ELISA for anti-HCV antibodies

detection of HCV RNA (PCR)
Early HCV = ______
late stage HCV =_____
liver fibrosis
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a “defective” virus
in that it needs ____ to replicate (by useing HBsAG)
HDV causes ______ in 40% of people infected with HDV.
It is _____ in ~80% of those with fulminant disease
fulminant hepatitis
HDV is a circular _____ virus.
(-) ssRNA
transmission of HDV is similar to that of _____ via blood, semen, vaginal secretions
HDV causes ______ of liver cells
_______ against HBV prevents HDV!
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of the family ______
HEV is ______ hepatitis
HEV is similar to HAV - no ________
chronic disease
HEV is a _____(similar to HAV)
_______ currently being used for HEV
no vaccine