Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the main microbes in meat fermentation?
Pediococcus acidilactici
Lactobacillus plantarium
What do the microbes eat in meat fermentation?
Sugar - it needs to be added
What is blackslop?
A bit of fermented meat from the day before is mixed in too to ensure correct bacteria
What is curing?
Addition of nitrates or nitrites which stabilize myoglobin
What bacteria converts nitrate to nitrie?
Micrococcus (converted aerobically)
What organisms ferment bread? What is the main fermentation reaction?
Yeast; in the case of sourdough, LAB too.

Sugars (added or from starch)--> ethanol + CO2
What yeast and bacteria are used for sourdough?
Candida milleri
Lactobacillus sanfranisco
What is pozol?
Fermented maize product - fermentation by bacillus (fixes N)
What are the main steps of soy sauce production?
1. Koji production
2. moromi fermentation
3. refinement
What is Koji production?
Soybeans are mashed with wheat; boiled, cooled then inoculated with mold (aspergillus). Enzymes produced by the mold incl. amylases, protenases - sugar is produced

**analogous to malting in beer
Salt and water is added to Koji. LAB (plantarium) and yeasts added and allowed to ferment at 40C 6-8 months. Acids, alcohol produced
How is it refined?
Pressed, liquid collected and then pasteurized for safety and flavor development.
What is used to produce Tempeh?
Rhizopus oligosporos mold on soy beans. 1-2 days.
Chewed up maize allowed to ferment: yeast + LAB = sour beer
What is gari?
Fermented cassava. Fermentation breaks down cyanogens and makes it safe to eat.
Who initially theorized microbe/disease link, and who confirmed?
Henle, and then Koch
Who is the father of probiotics
Elie Metchnikoff - he postulated that certain microbes we eat are good for the GI tract and prevent putrification (prolong life)
What approx counts are in our SI? LI?
SI - 10^5-10^7
LI - 10^10-10^12
Why so high in the LI
The LI is well buffered, is at physiological pH
Name one probiotic in the SI/ LI
SI - lactobacillus acidophilus
LI - Biffidobacteria
What is kefir?
Fermented milk product - fermented from kefir grain = yeast + LAB. Contains probiotics.

Also contains FOS which is a pre-biotic
Name a probiotic which is believed to be good for immunity + how?
Lactobacillus casei
Colonizes near Peyer's patch and promote antiinflammatory enzymes, stimulates immune system. Has to do with "unmethylated CG repeats".
What is Biffidobacteria "attenuation"
Rapid change to local environment: Iron low in LI
What is the special structure within Lactobacillus casei?
"unmethylated CG repeats