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18 Cards in this Set

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stains purple-thick layer of peptidoglycen
gram positive cell wall
stains pink- thin layer of peptidoglycen surrounded by outer membrane
gram negative cell wall
LPS- outer membrane of gram neg. bacteria (lipid + polysaccharide)
lipopolysacchride
portion of LPS that anchors the molecule in the lipid bilayer of the gram neg membranes- recognizes the presence of invading bacteria
lipid A
of a prokaryotic cells that contains DNA
Nucleoid
a kind of resting cell, characteristic of a limited number of bacterial species; highly resistant to heat, radiation and disinfectants.
Endospore
organelle in eukaryotic cells in which the majority of ATP synthesis occurs
Mitochondria
semipermeable membrane that that surrounds the cytoplasm in a cell
virus- acellular or non-living agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
Plasma Membrane
viruses that have a double layer of lipid surrounding their nucleocapsid
Enveloped Virus
mutation in which only a single base pair is involved
Point Mutation
mutation resulting from the addition or deletion of a number of nucleotides not divisible by three
Frameshift Mutation
A mutation which generates a stop codon, resulting in shortened protein
Nonsense Mutation
Compound that resembles a purine or pyrimidine base closely enough to be incorporated into DNA in place of a natural base
Base Analog
Two adjacent thymine molecules on the same strand of DNA joined together through covalent bonds
Thymine Dimer
Repair mechanism in which a repair enzyme recognizes improperly hydrogen-bonded bases and excises a short stretch of nucleotides containing these bases
Mismatch Repair
Process by which bacteria repair UV damage to the DNA only in the presence of light
Light Repair
Mechanism of DNA repair in which a fragment of single-stranded DNA containing mismatched bases is cut out
Excision Repair
Complex inducible repair process used to repair highly damaged DNA
SOS Repair