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132 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3 examples of Contact Transmission
Communicable (direct, or indirect), zoonotic, non-communicable
organism that causes respiratory infections, aka "black mold", a fungus
waterborne indirect fecal oral diseases
rotavirus, Giardia (Hiker's Diaherrea)
zoonotic disease spread by contact transmission w/materials or tissue
tularemia (rabbit fever), leptospirosis
examples of disease that have human carriers
typhoid, polio, staph infections
disease that has water as reservoir:
soil as reservoir:
tetanus, fungi
Mechanism of infection (GMOD)
gain access to host, multiply within host, overcome immune system, damage
Innate Imunity: first line of defense: physical and chemical
physical: skin, commensals
chemical: stomach acids, lysosomes
2 examples of opsonin independent phagocytosis
lectin-carbohydrate and protein-protein binding
ruber colar
"red heat"
pathogenesis of injury response
vasodialation, blood vessels see fluid and plasma at joints, swelling, phagocytes attracted
mast cells are produced in the:
bone marrow in connective tissue
mast cells have granules called ____ which contribute to the inflammatory response:
prostaglandings (PGE2 and PGF2alpha) cause what
swelling and the pain response
infected nerves release this, which binds to the mast cell
substance P
histamine does:
causes vasodialation and makes capillaries leaky
the act of the mast cells releasing mediators is called:
precourser to new mediators in immune response
arachodonic acid
affect WBC's and blood vessels: chemotactic
preformed mediators
histamine, heparin, proteolytic enzymes, chemotactic factors
newly synthesized mediators
leukotrienes (chemotactic), prostoglandins (pain response)
3 pathways of complement system, and trigger for each
classical pathway (trigger = Ab/Ag complex), Alternative pathway (trigger = chemicals associated with pathogen), lectin pathway (trigger = manose binding protein (ex-liver cells))
In the complement system, C3 convertase splits the C3 into two subunits; list them and thier functions
C3a: inflammatory response
C3b: helps phagocytic cells
the poly-9 ring is a function of the _____ and functions to _____
complement system, lyse the pathogenic infected cell
example of artificial acquired active immunity
eaxample of artificially acquired passive immunity
immune serum
example of natural acquired active immunity
immune response from normal course of infection
example of natural aquired passive immunity
maternal antibiotics
lymphocytes recognize pathogens by:
binding to an antigen
definition: epitopes
antigenic determinents
Antibody mediated response is the job of the ____ -lymphocytes
antibody mediated response is aka
humoral response
antibody mediated response works best against what type of pathogens?
in the antibody mediated response, the lymphocytes divide in a process called
clonal selection
(AB mediated response): after the lymphocytes divide via clonal selection, they produce ____ to coat the pathogen
in the humoral response, the antibody coated pathogen has these 4 possible fates (OACN)
opsonization, agglutination (for more rapid phagocytosis), complement fixation (lysing), neutralization antibodies which block viral receptors
cell-mediated immunity is a -function of the ____ -lymphocytes
cell mediated immunity works best against what types of pathogens
intracellular, occasionally larger eucaryotic extracellulars
this molecule has a portion which protrudes from the cell membrane of pathogen and helps bind the t-cell receptor in the cellmediated response
cytotoxic t-cells produce lymphotoxins, which function to do what:
disrupt the cell membrane, disrupt metabolism, or initiate apoptosis
Antigen presenting cells: how do they work:
they are macrophages which engulf the entire infected cell and then present the antigen on the surface in conjuction with the MDH2 molecule
T-Helper cells: TH1 helps:
CD-8 cytotoxic cells in the cell-mediated response
T-Helper cells: TH2 helps:
B-lymphocytes in the antibody productioin of the antibody mediated response
these 2 bacterial types prevent phagocytosis due to their capsules
klebsiella pneumonia, strep. pneumonia
These bacterial species can survive within phagocytes
mycobacterium TB, trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease)
The bacterial specias can constantly change their antigens, making the immune system ineffective
trypanosoma bruceii (sleeping sickness) borrelia hermisii (Relapsing fever)
active immunizations are the administration of ___ molecules and is used as a ____ technique
antigen, preventative
passive immunizations are the administration of ___ molecules, and is used as a ____ technique
antibody, treatment
advantages/disadvantages of killed/inactivated active immunizations
ad: can't produce symptoms of disease, disad: unwated side-effects due to other chemicals
examples of kille/inactivated active immunizations
pertussis, typhoid, cholera
advantages/disadvantages of live/attenuated active immuniztions
ad: produce stong immune response, less side rxns from other chemicals, disad: possiblity of presenting with symptoms of disease, might revert back to virulent form
examples of live/attenuated active immunizations
polio, MMR
advantages/disad. of subunit active immunizations
advantages: few adverse reactions, good to excellent immune response
disad: newer vaccienes are expensive
examples of subunit active immunizations
pneumococcus, HIB, hep B
examples of toxiod active immunizations
tetanus, diptheria ('boost-rix')
these two disease can be prevented by a post-exposure passive immunization
hep B, rabies
passive immunizations can be used for treatment of diseases due to toxins, such as:
tetanus, botulism, snake bites
def: chemotheraputic drug
a chemical used in the treatment of disease
antimicrobial drug : def:
chemical used in the treatment of infectious disease
antibiotic: def:
type of antimicrobial drug which is the natural product of a living organism, works best against bacteria
first antibiotics were isolated from ___ and ___ due to _____
fungi and bacteria, microbial antagonism
Antibiotics do NOT work against
some antibiotics will work agains ____ (other than bacteria)
the first antibiotic was ___ and was discovered by ___
penicillin, Alexander Flmming
4 general properties of a good microbial drug
selective toxicity, must be able to reach infected site, must be able to remain active at site
difference between static and cidal drugs?
static: drug inhibits further growth, immune system does the rest
cidal: microbe killed
most drugs that operate via cell-wall disruption work by doing what?
interferring with the production of peptidoglycan
examples of cell-wall disrupting drugs
penicillin, bacitricin
drugs that operate via nucleic acid synthesis disruption work by:
inhibiting the production of nitrogenous bases, sometimes via the inhibition of folic acid production
examples of drugs that work via nucleic acid synthesis disruption
sulfanomides, trimetoprim
drugs that work via inhibiting the unwiding of bacterial DNA work by:
blocking the DNA gyrase enzymes
examples of drugs that work via inhibiting the unwiding of bacterial DNA
Drugs that work via protein symthesis disruption act on the:
MRNA-ribose complex
ex: drugs taht work via protein synthesis disruption
30s: aminoglycosides, tetracyclines,
50s: chloromphenicol, erythromycin
aminoglycosides (FXN)
cause misreading of MRNA
Tetracyclines (FNX)
block attachment of TRNA
chloramphenicol (FXN)
prevents peptide bond formation
erytromycin (FNX)
prevents movement of ribosome along mRNA
polymixins are cell-membrane disruptor antibiotics that work by
disrupting membrane surface by interacting w/phospholipids of gram + bacteria
polyenes are antifungal cell membrane disruptors that work by
forming complexes with sterol lipids and causing abnormal openings in the membrane
What are the different antibacterial drug target sites?
cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm (metabolic factors), DNA
How do microbes acquire resistance?
mutations over time, or intermicrobial gene transfer
Mechanisms of drug resistance (SCIDA)
1. synthesis of enzymes which degrade the drug
2. changing drug receptor binding sites
3. increased elimination of drug
4. decrease in cell permeability/uptake
5. altering metabolic pathways
these resistance mechanisms can make a pathogen safe from multiple drugs
efflux pumps, cell membrane permeability
preventing spread of drug resistance
use antimicrobial drugs only when indicated, reserve potent antimicrobials for serious infections, use proper dose, limit use as food additive
Relevent species of Staphylococcus Genus
S Aureus, MRSA (methicilin resistant)
genus staphylococcus, gram positive or negative?
S. Aureues is coagulase (+or-)
this genus of gram positive cocci causes 15-25% of all nosocomial infections
These gram positive (genus) cocci are sensitive to many antibiotics
major pathogens of the genus streptococcus
pyogenes, pneumonia (pneumococcus)
this strep bacteria causes strept throat, puerperal fever, scarlet fever, glomerulonephirits, and rheumatic fever
sterp. pyogenes
this cocci species is found in some peoples normal nasopharynx flora, but also causes 70% of all bacterial pneumonias
strep. pneumonia
this strep specias causes otitis media, and sinusitis
strep pneumonia
this gram + cocci genus is known for causing oppurtunistic infections and is also a normal intestinal tract commensal. it is an important and growing cause of nosicomial infections
genus enterococcus
these gram negative bacteria come in pairs (diplococci) and are bean shaped
pathogens of this genus are fastidius and grow best under high carbon dioxide levels
important pathogens of genus Neisseria
N. gonhorrea, N. meningitidis
this is a serious infection of the lining of the nervous sytstem, following by an invasion of the bacterium or toxin into the bloodstream
meningococcal meningitis: causes by N. meningitidis
meningococcal meningitis is treated with what antibiotic?
penicillin G
this genus of gram positive bacilli are mostly saprophytic and harmless
genus bacillus
Anthrax (bacillus anthracis) is transmitted via
this genus of gram positive bacilli contains active fermenters
gas gangrene is caused by
clostridium septicum
this is an infection of deep wounds, occasionally surgical sites: spores germinate in the tissue and produce acids, among other things
gas gangrene
gas gangrene is treated by
broad spectrum antibiotics, debridement, amputation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy
the genus clostridum are aerobic or anaerobic?
prevention of gas gangrene
deep cleaning of wounds, prophylactic antibiotics for those with serious wounds
this clostridium species causes wound infections and toxicosis
the toxin of this species causes spastic paralysis by binding to inhibitory motor neurons
c. tetani
treatment for tetanus intoxication
antibiotics, passive immuniczation, respiratory support
this toxicosis results from improperally canned food
c. botulinum
how does the toxin work in the botulism toxicosis?
toxin is produced and circulates to neuromuscular junction and prevents release of neurotransmitter
this toxicosis is one of flaccid paralysis
botulism, inibilty for skeletal muscles to contract
treatment for botulism
passivie immunization, respiratory support (no antibiotics)
this genus of gram positive aerobic bacilli are free-living saprobes, slow growers, and have cell walls with high lipid content
genus mycobacterium
this mycobacterium species causes a very ancient human disease that is important worldwide
M. tuberculosis
most people have a natural resistance to this disease
tuberculosis is transmitted via ___ transmission
these are formed in the lungs after infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis
3 stages of tuberculosis: 1st stage: primary
1 primary: no or mild symptoms, people recover but bacteria becomes dormant
3 stages of TB: 2nd stage: (reactivation)
moderate to severe lung damage, weight loss, fever, fatigue
3 stages of TB: 3rd stage: extrapulmonary
disease spreads to other organs: bones, kidneys, brain, meninges
prevention of TB
terbeculin or "Mantoux Test" vaccine for high risk groups, early identification
common reservoirs for influenza
wild birds (often avirulent in them)
hosts for influenza
humans, domestic birds, ducks, chickens, swine
two important envelope proteins for the RNA virus: influenza
hemogglutinin: adherance and penetration of host cell

neuraminidase: helps virus penetrate mucos layer overlaying host cells
influenza: RNA or DNA? how many segments?
RNA, 8 segments
which type of flu is most virulent, A,B, or C?
most recent and last flu pandemic
spanish flu pandemic of 1918, 20 mil deaths worldwide
Avian Flu is which type?