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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What organism makes Infant flaccid after eaing honey
clostridium botulinum
Man as squamos cell carcinoma of penis is from what virus
Middle age male prsents with acute onset of monoarticular joint pain and bilateral Bell's palsy
Lyme disease from Ixodes tick
what are main features of exotoxins?
exo in gram + and gram -
polypeptide located on plasmid or baceriophage
high toxicity
induce hig ab called antitoxins
toxoids used to make vaccines
destroyed at 60 deg
endotoxin features
gram - bacteria
not secreted
bacteria chromosome
low toxicity
fever shock
makes TNF and IL-1
poor antigen
stable 100 deg
which gram + have exotoxins?
corynebacterium diptheria
clostridium tetani
clostridium botulinum
clostridium perfingens
bacillus anthracis
staphylococcus aureus
streptococcus pyogenes
Gram - bacteria with exotoxins
vibrio cholerae
bordetella pertussis
E. Coli

exotoxin action corynebacterium diphtheriae
inactivate EF-2 by ADP ribosylation, causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in throat
Action of Clostridium tetani exotoxin
Blocks release of inhibitory neruotransmitter glycine and causes lockjaw
Exotoxin mode of action of Clostridium botulinum
Glocks the release of ACH, causes CNS paralysis and spores cna be found in cannned food and honey
Exotoxin of Closridium perfringens
alpth toxin is a lecithinase, causes gas gangrene and get double zone of hemolyisis on blood agaar
exotoxin of bacillus anthracis
Has 2 toxins, one toxin is an adenylate cyclase
Exotoxin of Staphyloccus aureus
superantigen that binds to class II MHC protein and T-cell receptor, this induces IL-1 and IL-2 synthesis in toxic shock syndrome, also causes food poision with rapid onset
Exotoxin to streptococcus pyogenes
erthrogenic toxin is a SUPERANTIGEN that casuses rash of scarlet fever
Streptolysin O is hemolysin and the antigen for the ASO antibody.
Vibrio cholerae endotoxin
stimulated adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation of G protein

Increases pumping of Cl- and H2o into gut

Causes rice-water diarrhea
exotoxin bordetella pertussis
Simulates adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation

causes whooping cough,

inhibits chemokine receptor causes lyphocytosis
N-dotoxin is an intergral part of
gram-N egative cell wall
endotoxin especially lipid A activates

IL-1> fever
TNF> fever hemorrhagic tissue necrosis
Nitric Oxide> hypotension, shock
endotoxin activates
alternative complement pathway

C3a> hypotension Edema

C5a> Neutrophil chemotaxis
Endotoxin activates Hageman factor which causes
coagulation cascade> DIC
T-hese R-aschals M-ay M-icroscopically L-ack C-olor

AKA don't stain well
Legionella pneumophila
M-enin G-ococci ferment
Maltose and Glucose
gram + rods
gram+ cocci catalase negative
Staphy epidermis, Novobiocin sensitive

S. saprophyticus, novobiocin resistant
gram + cocci, catalase -
S pneumoniae Optochin Sensitive
Viridian sreptococci- Optochin resistant, not bile soluble
S. pyogenes- Bacitracin sensitive
S. agalactiae- Bacitracin resistant
Enterococcus faecalis
Peptostreptococcus- anaerobe
N. gonorrhoeae media
Thayer Martin, VCN
C. diphtheria agar
blood agar, tellurite plate, loffler
s medium
M. Tuberculosis culture media
Lowenstien-Jensen Agar
Lactose fermenting enterics grow on what media
Pink colonies on Mac Conkey's agar
Legionella Pneumophilia isolate on what media
Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with iron and cysteine
Media used to isolate fungi
Sabouraud agar, high in sugar
What is the stain used to diagnose Whipple's disease
Was stain is used for acid fast pacteria?
India Ink is used to stain
Cryptococcus neoformans
Giemsa's stain is useful for
Borrelia, plasmodium, trypansosomes and chlamydia
Who is the president of the united states
What does PAS stain?
Glycogen, mucopolysaccharides
P. AERuginosa is seen in burn wounds
nosocomial pneumonia
cystic fibrosis pneumonia

P. AERuginosa is an AERobe
The obligate aerobes
Nagging Pest Must Breathe
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
The obligate anaerobes

"They know their ABC's"
What are porperties of anaerobes
Lack catalase or suproxide dismutase and are easily oxidative damage

They are foul smelling, difficult to culture and produce gas in tissue CO2 and H2.
Wher are anaerobes found
GI tract, pathogenic else where.

AminO2glycosides are ineffective agains anaerobes because they need O2 to get into cell
Obligate Intracellular bugs

"Stay inside when it is Really Cold
Rickettsia and Chlyamydia, Can't make own ATP
Faculative intracellula
Encapsulated bacteria have polysaccharide as antiphagocytic virulence and has a positive
Quellung reaction, when present capsule sweels with specific anticapsular is added
Which bacteria form spores
Gram positive

Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium perfingens
C tetani

must autoclave to kill spores
Bacteria that are alpha hemolytic
Streptococcs Pneumoniae

Viridans streptococci
Bacteria that are Beta Hemolytic
S. Pyrogenes
S. agalactiae
S. aureus
Listeria Monocytogenes-minigitis in newbors, unpastureized milk
what is the property of catalase
degrade h2O2 a substrate for myeloperoxidase
Rhuematic Fever equals
E=erythema marginatum
S=Subcutaneous nodules
group A strep, pyrogenes virulence factors
Lipoteichoic acids, bind epithelial cells
M protein is the antigen and make Ab for, it antiphagocytic and degrades C3b

Streptolysin S-lyses leukocytes, platelets and erthro

Streptolysin O- immunogenic Streptolysin S.

Streptokinase-lyses blood clots, spread thru issue

DNASE's- depolymerizes cell free DNA in purulent material
What streptroccocus gamma hemolytic that grows on blood and chocolate agar that causes nosocomial infections
enterococcal endocarditis
Enterococci are penicillin G reisistant and cause
UTI and subacute endocarditis
The lancefield group D includes group D enterococci and nonenterococcal group D strep and is bases upon differences in
The C carbohydrate on the bacterial cell wall
Dental Caries are caused by this alpha hemolytic viridans strept
Streptococcus mutans
Cosdtridium tetan has an exotoxin that
Blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmiter from renshaw cells in spinal cord
Clostridum botulinum has an heat-liable toxin that inhibits
ACh release causing botulism

BOTulinum is from bat BOTtles of food
Clostridium perfingens produces and
Alpha toxin and hmolytic lecithinase tha causes myonecrosis or gas gangrene

PERFingens PERForates the gangrenous leg
Clostridum difficile produces and cytotoxin, and exotoxin that kills enterocyts and causes
Pseudomembranous colitis
Which acteria has exotoxin encoded by Beta prophage and inhibits protein synthesis via ADP ribosylation of EF-2
Clostridium diphtheriae
Coryne= club shaped and grows on tellurite agar
Corynebacerium diphtheriae
Pseudomembranous pharyngitis with lymphadeopathy
What are the symptoms of Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Lab diagnosis based on gram positive rods with metachromic granules
Corynebaceterium diphtheriae
The ABC's of Corynebacterium diphtheriae
ADP ribosylation
Elongation Factor 2
inhalation of these spores can cause woosorters disease
What is antrax, black skin lesions
Actionmyces israeliiis a gram positive anarobe and causes
oral/facial abscesses with sulfur granules that may drain thru sinus tracts in skin
Nocardia asteroides as a gram postive and acid fast aerobe that causes
pulomary infection in ummunocompromised paients
sulfa for
Actionmyces use
long branching gram positive rods
actinomyces and nocardia
Gram negative bugs are resistant to benzyl penicillin G but may be susceptible to
penicillin derivatives such as ampicillin
Actinomyces isralli can lead to
muliple abcess
propionibacterium acne are short chains of gram + rods and associated with
teen acne and prosthetic devices infections
gram - rod common in abdominal infections following surgery

Virulence includes agglutins, capsule, collagenase and IgA proteases
Bacteroides fragilis
WHat test is used to ID C.perfringens
Nagler test
What are the three main gram - spirochetes
T. pallidum pallidum
Syphilis, sexual contact, congenital transmission, lesion increase AIDS transmission
Syphilis spread
skin, mucoous
lymph nodes
skin, flu-like illness
CNS dementia aorrtic lesions
multiorgan malformation
symptoms of primary syphilis
localized disease painless chancre
secondary syphilis
Dissseminated idsease with maculopapular rash, condylomata lata

Secondary syphilis=systemic
Tetiary sypthilis
Gummas=granuomatous lesions,
neurosyphilis, tabes dorsalis, argyll robertson pupil
How diagnoses syphilis?
FTA-ABS=Find The Antibody-Absolutely:

most specific, earliest positive, remains positive the longest
Less specific tess for treponemes?
VDRL has the following false positives

Viruses, non, hepatitis
Rheumatic feve and rheumatic arthritis
Luppus and Leprosy
Treponemal disesase that casuses yaws
T. pertenue , non SD in tropics
Only spirochete that can ve visualized by Giemsa light stain
Borrelia recurrentis,

relaspsing fever caused by antigentic variation
Borrrelia recurrentis is caused by body louses and treated with
tetracyclen and erythomycin
Leptrospira interoogans causes
Weils' disease

renal failure
10-35 days
L. Interrogans enters bia
cuts abrassions and damages small bblood vessels and enter CNS

myalagia, headache, ab pain, miningitis, rash fever

exposure on farms watersports and rats
chlamydia is an
intracellular parasite
E-lementary body E-nters the cell via endocytosis

where R-eticulate body
replicates in cell by fission
clinical symptons of chlamydiae
arthritis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, nongonoccal urethritis
Chlamydia psittaci
avial reservoir

Parrot fever, headache, fever, chills, cns headache death,

tetracycline, erythomycin

enters repiratory tract, liver and spleen in blood and focal necrosis
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia pneumonia
only in humans and causes atypical pneumonia and transmitted by aerosol
How do you diagnose chylamydiae
cytoplasmic incusion on Giemsa or fluorescent antibody-stained smear
Shylamydia trachomatis serotypes

Africa/Blindness/Chronic infection
Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes

lymphogranuloam venereum

Acute lymphadenitis- positive Frei test
Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D-K
Everything else

urethritis/PID, neonatal pneumonia, neonatal conjunctivitis

Treat with erytromycin eye drops
gram + bacteria responsible for vaginitis
What causes rocy mountain spotted fever
ricketsia rickettsii
what causes q fever
Coxielle burnetii
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parsites because
they can ont produce suficient energy to replicate extracellularly that divide by binary fission
Weil-Felix test is used to id rickettssi by
cross reaction with antigens of the OX strains of proteus vulgaris
Q fever, C. burnetii is transmited by
Aerosol and inhaled into the lungs
All rickettsial diseases have antropod host such as ticks, lice, fleas and mites except
Epidemic typhus which occurs only in humans because the organism, R prowazekii is transmitted by human body louse
Ricettsial disease that has acute onset of fever, sever headach, myalgia, and prostration, ras appears 2-6 days beginning with macules and progress to petechiae. Rash begins on hands and feet and then move inward to the trunk.
DIC, edema, delirium and coma can occur
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Tick is the major reservor and it predominant on the east coast.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, r. rickettsii
THis disease has a combination of hepatitis and pneumonia and does not present as rash. It's important reservoir is a cattle or sheep and goats. and infects humans by aerosol inhalation
Q fever, coxiella burnetti and is usullay resolved even without antibiotics
Typus group of rickettsia
R. prowazekii,
R. typhi
r. tsutsugamushi
R. typhi is found in southern regions of California and Texas and symptoms include
Sudden onset of chills, fever, headache, ifluenza 1-3 weeks after louse bite, 5-9 day the maculopapular rash begins on the trunk and spreads out. Rash spares face, palms and soles.
Epidemic typhis is transmided pereson t oberson by human body louse and associated with
wars, proverty in developing countries
AKA Brill-Zinsser disease.
Diagnosis of rickettsial is serological test, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA test, where treatment is
tetracycline or chloramphenicol.
Reiter's syndrome is characterized by urethritis, arthritis and uveitis and is an anutoimmun disease caused by antibodies fromed against this bacteria
C.trachomatis, and cross reaccts with antigens on the cell of the urethra, jonts and uveal tract
These are the smallest free living organism and the organisms considered wall-less and have cholesterol in their membrane
What are mycoplasmas
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection produce autoantibodies to
RBC-cold agglutinis
, brain,
liver cells
Mycoplasma pneumonia is the mostly seen in
youn adults, collaege and military perosnnel
cold agglutinins are
IgM autoantibodies against type O red blood cess atha agglutinate at 4 degress but not at 37 degress.
Mycoplasma hominis is implicated in
pelvic inflammatory disease
4 characterisctics of enterobacteriaceae
all facultative anaerobes
all ferment glucose
all reduce nitrates to nitrites to get energy
the polysaccharide in the cell wall is alson known as the
o antigen and found in E. coli and salmonella
this antigen is on the flagella only and found in escherichia , salmonella and klesiella and shigella
H antigen