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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cause of the common cold
Rhinovirus (common)
Adenovirus (no so common)
Recommended treatment of the common cold
treat the symptoms, antihistamines
no antibiotic
Route of infection for the common cold
Direct mucous membrane contact with infection secretions
2 types of acute pharyngitis
Viral (most common) and bacterial
Symptoms of S. pyogenes pharyngitis
no difference between viral and bacterial

sudden onset, sore throut, fever, headache, GI symptoms, inflamed pharynx, patchy exudate, cervical adenopathy, 5-15 years old
Sequele of S. pyogenes pharyngitis
toxin production- Scarlet fever (strep throat + rash)
supperative- abcess
non-supperative-rheumatic fever (organism is long gone),
glomerularnephritis
Treatment of S. pyogenes pharyngitis
penicillin or amoxicillin to children
injectable cephalosporin
Other bacterial causes of pharyngitis
Gonococcal, N. gonorrhea, adenovirus, EBV, C. diptheriae
What bacterial agents cause Otitis Media?
S. pneumo, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis
What treatment is there for Otitis Media other than antibiotics?
Decongestants
Antihistamines
(amoxicillin is first antibiotic of chioce)
What bacterial agents cause Sinusitis?
Community acquired:S. pneumo, H. influenzae, anaerobes (dental), S. aureus, M. catarrhalis, enteric gnr, C. pneumo
Nosocomial: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, enteric gnr
What treatment is there for Sinusitis?
decongestant (don't have for <12 years old)
antibiotics that target the most likely pathogen
What causes Epiglottis?
H. influenzae in most children and 25% in adults
Others are S. pneumo, S. aurees, streptococci
How is Epigottitis treated?
Maintain airway
antimicrobial effective against H. influenzae and other possible pathogens (ceftriaxone)
What does HACEK stand for?
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/aphrophilus
Cardiobacterium
Eikenella
Kingella
What is/are salient features of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus?
smells like paste
What is/are salient features of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans?
star-like colonies
What is/are salient features of Kingella?
beta-hemolytic
pits agar
What is/are salient features of Chromobacterium?
purple pigment
What is/are salient features of Capnocytophaga?
dog bites
yellow pigment
fusiform gnr
What is/are salient features of Streptobacillus?
from rats
What is/are salient features of Eikenella?
IV drug user
pits the agar
smells like bleach
What is/are salient features of Francisella?
lab workers infectable
animal exposure
What is/are salient features of Pasturella?
family pets
indole pos.
What is/are salient features of Brucella?
unpasteurized cheese
What viral agent could be a candidate for bioterrorism?
smallpox
What bacterial agent could be a candidate for bioterrorism?
anthrax
What toxic agent could be a candidate for bioterrorism?
botulism
What are the 8 ideal qualities for a bioterrorist attack?
High rate of illnes
High fatality rate of those who get sick
short time between onset of illness and death
low level of immunity in the population
no effective or available treatment
person to person transmission
easy to produce and disseminate
difficult to diagnose
What are the 7 epidemiological clues of a bioterrorist attack?
large outbreak w/high illness and death rate
sindle case of uncommon disease (smallpox)
unusual symptoms or severity of illness
infection is non-endemic to region
unusual seasonal distribution
multiple w/simultaneous outbreaks in non-contiguous areas
sick or dying animals
What causes diptheria?
Corynebacterium diptheriae
What is the best prevention of diptheria?
vaccination
What is the route of infection for diptheriae?
droplets
What are the symptoms of diptheria?
gray membrane in throat
How is confirmatory testing done for diptheria?
Phage detection

A phage infects the bacteria that infects the human and releases a cardio toxin
What causes Croup?
Parainfluenzae virus
What are the symptoms of Croup?
coughing (seal bark)
hoarseness
What kind of sample is needed for testing Croup?
nasopharyngeal swab
What causes Whooping Cough?
Bordetella pertusis
What are the symptoms of Whooping Cough?
coughing
cyanosis
vomiting
How is Whooping Cough best prevented?
vaccination

The vaccination we get as kids wears off at about age 12.

It is offerred at the same time as tetanus shots.
What is the primary host for infection of Whooping cough?
unvaccinated adults
What are characteristics of antigenic shift?
precipitates pandemic
new type of organism, therefore no immunity
2 different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype
What are characteristics of antigenic drift?
random process of mutation (slow)
What can Mycoplasma cause?
CAP (Community Acquired Pneumonia)
Under what circumstances is Mycoplasma found?
young adults living in close proximity (dorms, barracks)
What are the main causes of CAP (Community Acquired Pneumonia)?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Enteric gnr
Legionella is looked for at special request
How are CAP causitive bacteria ID?
Streptococcus pneumoniae: alpha-hemolytic, mucoid, lancet shaped

Haemophilus influenzae: X and V on Thayer-Martin with growth inbetween (delta-ALA neg)

Moraxella catarrhallis: hockey puck, CTA neg for all sugars
What's up with H and N with Influenza type A?
H and N are based upon antigenic variation of surface glycoproteins.
H: hemagglutanin
N: neuraminidase
What is the main viral infection causes CAP in children?
RSV
What do P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cause and what is the concern?
VAP (Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia)

The concern is becuase they are intibiotic resistant
What is the rational for a lab diagnosis when the doctor has already diagnosed the patient?
the lab finds the causitive agent
What are some advantages of a urine test for pneumonia?
available for patient w/o sputum
antigen is detectable even if patient is taking drugs
high specificity, but low sensitivity
What is always reported in sputum samples?
presence or absence of normal flora
presence of epithelial cells
predominant pathogen
What are the signs and symptoms of TB?
night sweats, weight loss, cough, bloody sputum
What are some salient features of Bordetella?
small gn coccobacilli
grow on Bordet-Gengou or Regan-Lowe agar
Where does someone get the Bartonella bacteria from?
cat scratch
If an organism is positive for delta-ALA can it breakdown heme?
yes
If an organism is negative for delta-ALA can it breakdown heme?
no
What organism is delta-ALA positive?
H. parainfluenzae (doesn't need X)
What organism is delta-ALA negative?
H. influenzae (needs X)
What are the growth requirements for H. influenzae?
X+
V+
What are the growth requirements for H. parainfluenzae?
X-
V+
Why is Neisseria cinerea a concern to the clinical lab?
Because N. cinerea closely resembles N. gonorrhoeae.
Loss of plasmid leads to ________ resistance.
penicillin
What are some salient features of Neisseria species?
gndc, oxidase +, catalase +
What Neisseria species is rod shaped?
N. elongata
What Neisseria species is yellow pigmented?
N. subflava
What Neisseria species is catalase -?
N. elongata
What selective media are used for N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis?
Thayer-Martin (TM)
Modified Thayer-Martin (MTM)
Martin-Lewis (ML)
New York City (NYC)
GC-LET
What are the inhibitory agents in Thayer-Martin?
Vancomycin
Colistin
Nystatin
What makes Modified Thayer-Martin different from Thayer-Martin?
Modified Thayer-Martin contains trimethoprim
Vancomycin suppresses
gram-positive
Colistin suppresses
gram-negative
Nystatin suppresses
yeast
Trimethoprim suppresses
swarming Proteus species
Name one virulence factor that N. gonorrhoeae has?
Capsule
Pili
Cell-Wall proteins
Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)
IgA protease that cleaves TgA on mucosal surfaces
What virulence factors does N. meningitidis have?
Capsule
Pili
Cell-Wall proteins
Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)
IgA protease that cleaves IgA on mucosal surfaces
Haemophilus species that are X-, V+, Porphyrin +
parainfluenzae
paraphrophilus
parahaemolyticus
paraphrohaemolyticus
segnis
Haemophilus ducreyi gram stain looks like what?
school of fish
What are the X and V requirements for Aggrigatibacter aphrophilus?
don't need either