Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of disease? (2)
-any change in the body from a state of health
-impairment of body function
What is the definition of pathology?
-the study of disease
What is the definition of pathogenicity?
-properties of the microorganism which allow ot to cause disease
What is the definition of virulence? (2)
-defines the degree of pathogenicity
-descibes microbial invasiveness or toxigenicity
What is the definition of etiology?
-the study of the causes of disease
What is the definition of infection?
-invasion of the body by a pathogenic microorganism
Give 3 facts of normal flora.
-microbial populations established in various areas of the body
-normal flora species do not produce disease under normal healthy conditions
-normal flora develops shortly after birth because the fetus is germ free
What is the definition of symbiosis?
-living together in close association of two organisms of different species
What is the definition of commensalism? Give an example.
-association where neither organism is harmed
-one benefits and the other is not affected
Ex. Staph. epidermidis
What is the definition of mutualism? Give an example.
-association that is beneficial to both organisms
Ex. E. coli
What's the definition for parasitism? Give an example.
-association where one organism benefits at the expense of the other
Infectious Disease (2)
-pathogen caused
-over half of all human diseases are infectious
Congenital Disease (3)
-present at birth
-result of abnormal development during the pregnancy
-Ex. cleft palate, heart defects, metal retardation
Neoplastic Disease (2)
-tumor formation; benign or malignant
-Ex. genital warts, liver cancer
Immunologic Disease (2)
-immune response that results in tissue damage
-Ex. Hay fever, autoimmune disease, lupus
Nutritional Disease (3)
-lack of nutrients
-adversely affects metabolism
-Ex. Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvey)
Metabolic Disease (2)
-a biochemical abnormality
-Ex. Diabetes mellitus, cretinism
Degenerative Disease (2)
-progressive loss of function as we age
-Ex. osteoarthritis, loss of near vision
Idiopathic Disease (2)
-disease of undetermined cause
-Ex. hypertension
Define port of entry.
-pathways leading into the interiorof the body
Name 4 ports of entry into the skin.
-wound site, nick, or puncture wound (boils, tetnus)
-insect bite (malaria, lyme disease)
-enzyme breakdown (fungal)
-contaminated needles (HIV, Hep. B & C)
Give 3 other examples of ports of entry other than the skin.
-G.I. Tract, Respiratory Tract, and Urogenital Tract
Define size of inoculum.
-number of microorganisms required to cause an infection
What 2 things does the size of inoculum depend on?
-1. virulence of the pathogen
-2. host resistance (diet, sleep, season)
Define infective does.
-number of pathogens needed to infect 50% of population of experimental animals
1-10 cells/virions for...
rabies, TB, giardiasis
1,000 cells for...
1,000,000 cells for...
Define lethal dose.
-number of pathogens needed to kill 50% of a population of experimental animals
Name the 2 mechanisms of invasion and establishment.
-attachment to a host
-tissue penetration and damage
How does bacteria attach to a host?
-fimbriae, slime layer
How does a virus attach to a host?
-specific attachment to receptor sites in a host cell
How do helmenths attach to a host?
-suckers, barbs
Name the 2 types of bacterial toxins.
exotoxins and endotoxins
Give 3 facts about exotoxins.
-they're proteins produced by Gram + & - bacteria
-released while the cell is still alive
-proteins are what cause the tissue damage
What are the 3 catagories of exotoxins?
-neurotoxins, enterotoxins, and cytotoxins
What do neurotoxins do? Give examples.
-interfere with normal nerve impulse conduction
-Ex. Lockjaw --> Clostridium tetani, Botulism --> Clostridium botulinum
What do enterotoxins do? Give examples.
-cause irritation to the GI tract
-Ex. Cholera --> vibrio cholerae, food poisoning --> Staph. aureas and E. coli
What do cytotoxins do? Give an example.
-kill host cells or affect their function
-Ex. Scarlet fever --> Strep. pyrogenes
Exotoxins are proteins and can be...
Define a toxoid.
-an inactivated exotoxin and can be used as a vaccine material
Give 4 facts and 2 examples about endotoxins.
-lipopolysaccharides that are structurally part of the cell wall of Gram - bacteria (Lipid A)
-toxin is only released after the cell dies an the wall breaks down
-toxoids not produced due to the chemical make up of the endotoxin
-effects of endotoxins include inflammation, fever, vasodiliation, shock, blood clotting, diarrhea
-Ex. Typhoid fever --> Salmonella typhi, food poisoning --> Salmonella spp.
Define extracellular enzymes.
-enzymes secreted by bacteria, fungi, helminthes, protozoa
Name 2 types of extracellular enzymes.
barrier destruction enzymes and blood reactant enzymes
Define barrier destruction enzymes.
-allows microbial penetration into tissue spaces
Name the 6 types of barrier destructioni enzymes.
mucinase, keratinase (skin), collagenase (connective tissue), hyaluronidase (tissue cement), phospholipase, deoxyribonuclease
Name the 3 types of blood reactant enzymes.
hemolysins, coagulase, fibrinolysin
What do hemolysins do?
-destroy WBC's
Give 3 facts about coagulase.
-causes intravasular clots to form (fibrinogen to fibrin), tissue beds not oxygenated
-bacteria invade necrotic tissue site (Staph)
Give 2 facts about fibrinolusin.
-breaks down blood clots at wound sites
-bacteria invade wound site (Strep. & Staph.)