Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
used for motility in bacteria
Pili / Fimbriae
in bacteria, function in attachment to other bacteria or to a host
in bacteria, a coiled cytoplasmic membrane that anchors chromosomes
Bacteria general characteristics
single-celled prokaryotes
their DNA is in a long circular molecule in a nucleoid
they have a capsule
they have no organelles other than ribosomes
Ways to classify bacteria
gram-stain; shape; appearance of colonies; respiration; biochemical markers; serotyping; analysis or genetic material; antibiogram patterns; phage typing
Obligate aerobes
require oxygen to live
Obligate anaerobes
unable to use oxygen for energy-yielding reactions; are harmed by oxygen
Facultative anaerobes
will use oxygen when it is present, but are also able to continue growth via fermentation or anaerobic respiration when oxygen isn't available
require oxygen; grow in oxygen concentrations lower than air
Bacterial cell wall
the main component is peptidoglycan (a polymer of hexose sugars and amino acids), providing a hydrophilic surface
elicits innate protective immune responses in humans
Gram-Stain Process
bacteria are heat fixed or dried on a slide, stained with crystal violet and gram's iodine, excess stain is removed by washing with acetone-based decolorizer and water, and red counterstain (safranin) is added
Gram staining doesn't work for...
1) starved cells
2) old cells in the stationary phase
3)those treated with antiobiotics
4)mycobacteria (waxy outer shell) or mycoplasmas (no peptidoglycan)
Characteristics of Gram-Positive Bacteria
outer membrane: No
Lysozyme: sensitive
Cell Wall: Thicker
LPS(lipo-polysaccharides): No
Endotoxin: No
Characteristics of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Outer membrane: Yes
Lysozyme: Resistant
Cell Wall: thinner
LPS(lipo-polysaccharide): Yes
Endotoxin: Yes
Shapes of bacteria
Coccus: spherical
Bacillus: rod shaped
Spiral: snakelike
bacteria take up fragments of naked DNA and incorporate them into their genomes. Some species are competant, naturally taking up exogenous DNA
a one-way transfer of DNA from a donor (male) cell to a recipient (female) cell through the sex pilus
the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another via a bacteriophage (bacterial viruses with extrachromosomal genetic elements); once in a cell, a transposon can jump between plasmid to plasmid to chromosome
Ways of classifying and naming viruses
mode of replication; structure; associated disease; mode of transmission; host cell; target tissue or organ
Modes of transmission of viruses
Oral transmission
Direct skin contact
Droplet transmission
Direct inoculation
Sexual transmission
Modes of oral transmission of viruses
contaminated food and drink
Modes of droplet transmission of viruses
Modes of direct inoculation of viruses
Insect Bites
Lytic infections
viruses replicate, produce new viruses, and they are released when the cell lyses
Persistent Infections
the cell remains alive and releases particles slowly
Latent Infections
the virus remains quiescent with the DNA or RNA existing in the host's cytoplasm or in the hosts genome; replication takes place when some sort of activation occurs
Cancer-inducing viruses
viruses that transform the host cell (via malignant transformation); the transformed cells show changes in morphology, behavior, and biochemistry; controlled growth patterns and contact inhibition are lost, so that cells continue to divide and from random aggregations
Examples of cancer-inducing viruses
Human papillomavirus (cervical cancer)
Hepatitis B and C virus (liver cancer)
Epstein-Barr virus (Hodgkin's disease)
the study of fungi
Fungi classification
classified according to:
-Growth forms
-Type of infections caused
Distinguishing characteristic of fungi from other eukaryotes
Fungi have a rigid cell wall made of chitin and glucan and have a cell membrane with ergosterol instead of cholesterol
Filamentous form of Fungi
the mass of hyphae forms a mycelium; asexual reproduction results in the formation of spores which disperse the fungus
Yeast-like forms of Fungi
the single cell reproduces by division (budding or fission)
Types of fungal infections (mycoses)
-Cutaneous or Subcutaneous
Superficial Mycoses
fungus grows at the body surface (skin or hair)

-black fungus
Cutaneous or Subcutaneous Mycoses
fungus grows on the nails and deeper layers of the skin

Systemic Mycoses
fungus affects internal organs and systems

Opportunistic Mycoses
a type of systemic mycoses in which the fungi causes disease in patients with compromised immune systems

Reproduction of Protozoa
usually asexual (binary or multiple division)
sexual (rare) in an arthropod vector
Modes of transmission of Protozoa infections
-ingestion of cysts in contaminated food or drink; reside in intestine
-sexual contact; reside in urogenital tract
-arthropod vectors; reside in blood or other tissues
Body tissues and organs affected by intracellular protozoan infections
erythrocytes; macrophages; brain; muscle; epithelial cells
-uptakes nutrients from host cells
Body tissues and organs affected by extracellular protozoan infections
blood; intestines; urinary/reproductive tracts

-feed by nutrient uptake from host cells or ingesting whole host cells
Types of Helminths
Tapeworms (Cestoda)
Flukes (Trematoda)
Roundworms (Nematoda)
Helminths with ventral suckers and/or hooks to attach to hosts
Flukes and Tapeworms
Modes of transmission of Helminths
Via Intermediate Host
Fecal-Oral Route
Active Skin Penetration
Types of Intermediate Host trasmission in Helminths
eating undercooked pork, leads to accidental ingestion of larvae that is in the tissue of the pork (fluke, tapeworm, roundworm larvae)
Types of Fecal-Oral route transmission in Helminths
eggs of roundworm/tapeworm found in water or food originating from feces
Types of Active Skin Penetration transmission in Helminths
larval stages invade through skin (hookworm larvae - roundworm)
Types of Insect transmission in Helminths
the bite of an infected blood-sucking insect vector injects larval stage into host (roundworm larva via mosquito and fly vectors)
Two classes of Arthropoda that are important in infectious diseases
Arachnida (ticks, mites)
Insecta (mosquitoes, fleas, flies, lice, bugs)
Ways that Arthropods cause diseses
Directly: by feeding on blood and tissue fluid of host
Indirectly: by transmitting pathogens
Two mechanisms that help cleanse the upper respiratory tract
1)Mucous/Ciliary Actions: mucous traps organisms and the ciliary action propels the mucous outward to expectorate or swallow
2)Saliva Action: saliva flushes and creates an environment with enzymes that help break down pathogens
The most common infectious disease.
The common cold
The cause of at least 50% of all colds
poisonous substances produced by microorganisms
toxic proteins produced by some bacteria (produced inside mostly gram-positive) and secreted or released after lysis
part of the outer portion of part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of gram-negative bacteria, released on destruction of the cell
Causes of Otitis Externa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Candida albicans
Causes of Otitis Media
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pyogenes
Reasons why Otitis media is more common in infants and children than it is in adults
The eustacian tube is shorter, more horizontal, and the lumen is wider (this prevents drainage so there is a warm, moist environment for growth of infection; also their immune system is less developed