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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is tissue?
colletion of similar cells and intercell substance surrounding them
what are the types of tissue?
epithelium, connective, muscle, nerve
what is an organ?
composed of several tissue types arranged in stuctural plan w/ special fxn
what is epithelium?
closely apposed and connected cells, not specialized for contraction or impulse conduction

form sheets covering ext/int body surface or a gland
name the epithelia that arises from ectoderm.
epidermis, skin appendages, cornea
name the epithelia that arises from mesoderm
kidney tubules, lining of resp tract, endothelium (lining of blood vessels), and mesothelium (lining of body cavities)
name the epithelia that arises from endoderm
linings of gut, urogenital sys, resp sys, and glands
how do you classify epithelia based on layers?
pseudostratified (all cells rest on basement mbn, but not all reach free surface)
how do you classify epithelia based on shape on surface?
squamous - fried egg
transitional - only in urinary tract w/ large, domed, sometimes binucleate cells in relaxed form
what is metaplasia?
when a type of tissue turns into another type not typical of the organ (w/in the same general category)
what are the functions of the epithelia?
physical protection (skin, esoph)
prevent water loss (skin)
selective diffusion of gases (lung)
absorpt (intest)
secretion (stom)
transcellular transport (intest. enterocytes)
excretion (kid)
sensory reception (olf, taste buds)
what is the basement mbn?
an extracellular structure that is NOT a mbn; anchors epithelia to underlying CT
what are the parts of the basement mbn?
basal lamina (made by epithelial cells)
-lamina lucida - has glycoprotein laminin
-lamina densa - includes Type IV collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin

lamina reticularis (made by fibroblasts of CT) - Type I and III collagen of CT pass into lamina reticularis and bound to Type VII collagen, fibrillin, and fibronectin
what is the external lamina?
similar to basal lamina, but for muscle cells, adipocytes, and schwann cells
what are microvilli?
actin filament core that inserts into the terminal web

increased SA for absorption or ion transport

forms brush border/striated border

sometimes see glycocalyx
what are cilia?
axoneme core of MT in 9+2 formation

insert into basal bodies (9 triples, no central pair)

longer, more fringe-like clumping; move in wave

mucociliary escalator
what are stereocilia?
look like cilia, but actually really long microvilli

core of actin filaments, not an axoneme

in male reproductive tract and inner ear (hair cells)
why do you see many infoldings at the basal end of some epithelial cells?
increase SA, more mitochondria for more ATP

in kidney tubules and striated ducts of salivary glands
what is a junctional complex?
junction found ONLY in epithelia, but not all epithelia

zonula occludens
zonula adherins
what is the terminal web?
intermediate filaments at apical end of epithelial cells

where actin bundles of microvilli insert into
where would you find simple squamous epithelia?
where would you find stratified squamouse epithelia?
esophagus, vagina, skin
where would you find simple cuboidal epith?
kidney tubules
small ducts
where would you find stratified cuboidal epith?
sweat gland ducts
where would you find simple columnar epith?
gall bladder
where would you find stratified columnar epith?
part of male urethra
where would you find pseudostratified columnar epith?
trachea (ciliated)
bronchi (ciliated)
epididymis (stereocilia)
where would you find transitional epith?
what are glands?
epithelia modified to secrete
what is an exocrine gland?
releses onto free surface or via ducts
what is an endocrine gland?
releases into surrounding CT, then picked up by capillaries

what are serous cells?
produce watery fluid w/ ions and proteins
what do serous cells look like?
round to oval nucleus, not flattened against basal plasma mbn

basophilic at basal region

atypical cytoplasm w/ secretory vacuoles

DARKER than mucous cells
what are mucous cells?
secrete mucinogens, which mix w/ water and make viscous mucin
what do mucous cells look like?
MANY secretory granules

nuclei flatted at basal end

contents of granules are water soluble, so extracted, and are PALE staining
what are goblet cells and how do they stain?
modified columna epith cells that synth and secrete mucus

in resp and GI tracts

secretory granules are:
PAS positive
e- light on EM
pale on LM
what is merocrine secretion?
product stored in sec vacuoles, fuse w/ plasma mbn

only product released

ex: panc, goblet
what is apocrine secretion?
release of product and part of cell itself

ex: lipid sec by mammary
what is holocrine secretion?
whole cell is shed

ex: sebaceous
what are some unicellular glands?
diffuse neuroendocrine cells in GI tract or resp tract
how can multicelluar exocrine glands be classified in terms of duct and shape?
what is a simple exocrine gland?
no branching
what is a compound exocrine gland?
branches in DUCT
what is a branched exocrine gland?
branches in SECRETORY unit
what is an acinar (alveolar) exocrine gland?
secretory unit is spherical

usu. serous
what is a tubular exocrine gland?
secretory unit is tubular

usu. mucous
classify intestinal glands
simple tubular
classify eccrine sweat glands
simple coiled tubular
classify some sebaceous glands
simple acinar
classify the meibomian gland of eyelid and most sebaceous glands
simple branched acinar
classify the pancreas
compound acinar
classify the sublingual salivary gland
compound branched tubuloacinar
what is a tubuloalveolar gland?
both tubular and spherical secretory units
how are compound glands divided?
into lobes and lobules
what is a lobe?
largest subdivision of a compound gland; made up of multiple lobules
what is a lobule?
inside lobes of compound glands

separated by septa (CT)
how are intralobular ducts divided?
intercalated ducts
striated ducts
what is an intercalated duct
smallest duct; receives secretions directly from secretory units

lined by simple low cuboidal
what is a striated duct?
modify ionic compoistion of secretion

simple cuboidal lining

infoldings of basement mbn -> mit line up, causing EOSINOPHILIC streaks
what are serous demilunes?
grps of serous cells attached like cap to basal end of mucous secretory unit

found in mixed glands where mucous cells >> serous cells
what are myoepithelial cells?
derived from epith, lie on epith side of basement mbn


found only in a few glands - eccrine sweat, apocrine sweat, and mammary
what are parotid glands?
salivary glands anterior to ears on cheeks

almost entirely SEROUS

make amylase and lysozyme; transcytosis (transport IgA to lumen)

intralobular ducts w/ both intercalated and striated ducts
what are sublingual glands?
floor of oral cavity


has serous demilunes
what are submandibular glands?
beneath chin


serous acini and serous demilunes