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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diseases caused by the Enterobacteriaceae
Gram negative bacilli, lactose negative
motile, H2S gas production
Which bacteria has 2400 serotypes
______is the “major” species of salmonella
S. choleraesuis
organism that causes enteric fever:
S. typhi
S. typhimurium-
less pathegenic
Salmonella infection due to _______ of bacteria (contaminated food/water)
Salmonella gets to small intestines where it enters ______ and then to basolateral surface
M cells
______ often ingest salmonella however it is
protected from host responses
Salmonella alters host cells:
changes actin to allow for ______________ prevents lysosomal enzymes of macrophage from degrading bacteria
“bacteria-mediated endocytosis”
Salmonella is ______ by macrophages to:
liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow
inflammatory cytokines secreted by activated macrophages and ______ symptoms likely due to host response against pathogen
______ often ingest salmonella however it is
protected from host responses
Salmonella infections can be split into _______ & ________
non-typhoid and typhoid
Enteric (typhoid) fever is a systemic disease caused by ___________
S. typhi or S. paratyphi
You get Enteric (typhoid) fever from ________
ingesting contaminated food
pt who has recently returned from Africa reports a fever for 10 days which has gradually increased he also reports headache, myalgia, malaise. On PE he has rose spots (raised rash on front of chest)
at around 21 days he develops diarrhea. He developes hepato & splenomegly. Eventually he develops intestinal hemmhorraging that leads to his death
what is the dx
Enteric (typhoid) fever
diarrhea in enteric fever is due to ________
inflammatory reaction in Peyer’s patches/GALT (= necrosis)
what are some things that may predispose you to becoming a chronic carrier of salmonella
you are infected and recover but you still have the organism in you're stool. Women and elderly are more likely to be carriers.
in salmonella infxn of the ________ can supply bacteria to intestines
Diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever
positive diagnosis can be accomplished from stool, urine, or bone marrow culture
stool culture is often negative in 60-70% early in infection
some strains of S. typhi have been shown to be __________. check for antibiotic susceptibility
MDR (multidrug resistant)
________ is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea (many causes)
acute gastritis
Gastroenteritis is often caused by ________
symptoms of Gastroenteritis often present within ______ after ingestion and lasts _____. It is usually self limiting
2-3 days.
outbreaks of salmonella in U.S are usually due to (2)
1) attributed to chicken eggs
2)exposure to pets
Salmonellosis diagnosis and treatment
stool culture
(sent to public health departments for phage typing)
causes acute infectious inflammatory colitis (colon infection)
a/k/a – bacillary dysentery
Gram negative rod (bacillus), non-motile
lactose negative
H2S negative
Shigella: S. dysenteriae (Group A)
most pathogenic
Shigella: S. sonnei (Group D)
most common cause of shigellosis in industrial world
Shigella infection happens via ______ transmission from infected humans
Shigella is ________ (need only ~200 cells to produce disease)
highly communicable
pt presents w/ abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, bloody stools
Labs show large numbers of WBC in stool
There is inflammatory damage to intestinal epithelium.
What is the dx?
how do you dx Shigella?
standard microbiological testing (selective/differential media: MacConkey followed by SS or Hektoen-enteric, etc)
Shigella is invasive into _____ and macrophages of Peyer’s patch. This allows for replication of the bacteria and production of virulence proteins
M cells
Shigella causes ____ secretion and ______of macrophages
Shigella's ________ cause “ruffling” of epithelial cells
allows for endocytosis of the bacteria
virulence proteins
Shigella virulence proteins actin rearrangement allows for _________
cell-to-cell spread
S. dysenteriae produces _______(similar to EHEC)
destruction of intestinal epithelium (and spread of the bacteria)
shiga toxin
Gram negative, pleomorphic rods
. enterocolitica (and Y. pseudotuberculosis) causes _______
acute enterocolitis
associated with ingestion of contaminated food/milk (can grow at lower temperatures, 4°C)
with a blood transfusion septicemia
Y. enterocolitica (and Y. pseudotuberculosis)
45 year old woman with
persistent diarrhea has mucosal ulcerations
(terminal ileum)
What is the dx?
Y. enterocolitica