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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Non-Enterobacteriaceae enteric microbes
VERY SMALL Gram negative, sprial/curved rods, motile
most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in U.S.
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter is _______(need candle jar)
grows better at 42°C rather than 37°C
slower growth than other enterics…need selective media to inhibit normal flora (ex. Campy-BAP)
Campylobacter causes _________
Campylobacter pathology involves _______ to small and large intestines (not just jejunum)
There is inflammatory reaction (infiltrate of PMNs, mononuclear cells, eosinophils)
histologic damage
infection of Campylobacter is from _______ of contaminated food (poultry) and fluids (milk/water)
half of Campylobacter infections are from ________
poultry meat
food products that ________ (e.g., milk) allow Campylobacter to make it through the stomach.
Campylobacter is very sensitive to stomach acids
neutralize stomach acid
pt presents w/ diarrhea, malaise, fever, abdominal pain
what is the dx
associated with bacteremia

especially problematic in immunocompromised and those with chronic disease (diabetes, alcoholism, liver disease, etc)

starts out as intestinal infection and moves systemic
Campylobacter fetus
Campylobacter – cross-reactivity associated with specific serotypes of C. jejuni (O:19)
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Immune cross-reaction/ inflammation that causes painful joint swelling that may last for weeks to years
Reactive arthritis
Campylobacter – diagnosis
check MOTILITY in dark-field microscopy
-organism “darts” about field

culture requires MICROAEROPHILIC conditions, 42°C (except C. fetus which requires 37°C)
media needs antibiotics to inhibit other microbes
________ test differentiates H. pylori from Camplylobacter
(+) H. pylori
(-) Campylobacter
differentiation of C. Jejuni & C. Coli from C. fetus?
C. Jejuni & C. Coli grows at 42 degrees
C. fetus doesn't grow at 42 degres
which causes more illnesses Campylobacter or Salmonella
which causes more deaths Campylobacter or Salmonella
Gram negative, facultative anaerobic curved rods
positive oxidase
single polar flagella
_______ is divided into three serotpyes: Inaba, Ogawa, and Hikojima
V. cholerae 01
phenotypically, 01 divided into two biotypes:
classical” - equal number of symptomatic/asymptomatic infections

“el tor” biotype” - for every symptomatic case, ~20-100 asymptomatic cases
classic’ cholera toxin:
AB toxin
Cholera AB toxin
B unit
BINDS to ganglioside GM1 receptor on intestinal epithelial cells
Cholera AB toxin
A unit
interacts with G proteins that stimulate the overproduction of cAMP
causes hypersecretion of water and electrolytes
This Cholera toxin loosens the tight junctions (zonula occludens) of the small intestine mucosa
toxin causes increased intestinal permeability
zonula occludens toxin
This cholera toxins increases fluid secretion = diarrhea
accessory cholera toxin
________ found in marine waters & associated with shellfish
V. cholerae
seven major V. cholerae pandemics since 1817
six of the seven were due to the _______
the seventh (1992) was associated with _______
01 strain
0139 Bengal
associated with shellfish consumption (especially oysters)
V. parahemolyticus, V. vulnificus
pt reports sudden onset of diarrhea. pts hx is significant for oyster consumption 3 days ago. Stool sample shows colorless/odorless and speckled with mucous (rice-water stools)
V. cholerae
V. cholerae Treatment
fluid replacement and AB
Gram positive rod, SPORE FORMER, most are obligate anaerobes
common inhabitants of soil, water, and vegetation
found in intestinal tract (normal flora)
Pathogenic species of Clostridium can be identified by _______
(central, terminal, sub-terminal)
location of spore
gas gangrene and enteric infections (central spore)
C. perfringens
antibiotic-associated colitis (sub-Terminal)
C. difficile
food poisoning (sub-terminal)
C. botulinum
C. perfringens: GI pathology
enterotoxin released in gut after spore germination
C. perfringens can cause __________ necrotic patches in the small intestines
enteritis necroticans
antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by C. Difficil
can progress to __________
pseudomembranous colitis