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17 Cards in this Set

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Peptidoglycan:
1) What does it do?
2) Chemical Composition?
1) Gives rigid support
2) Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains
Cell wall/cell membrane
1) What does it do?
2) Chemical Composition?
1) Major surface antigen
2) peptidoglycan; lipotechoic acid induces TNF and IL-1
Outer membrane of gram negs
1) What does it do?
2) Chemical Composition?
1) major surface antigen/ site of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)
2)lipid A induces TNF and IL-1
What does the capsule protect against? What do you use to test it?
phagocytosis
The quelling reaction
Glycocalyx
1) What does it do?
2) Chemical Composition?
1)mediates adherance to cells surfaces, especially foreign surfaces (indwelling catheters)
2) polysaccharide
What component of cell walls is unique to gram +s? to gram -s? What is the last difference between them?
Gram +s: Lipotechoic acid
Gram -s: endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide
Peptidoglycan is much thicker in the cell wall of gram +s
Name all gram + rods:
clostridium, bacillus, corneybacterium, mycobacterium, listeria
Name branching filamentous? (only gram +)
nocardia, actinomyces
Name pleomorphic?
Rickettsia and Chlamydia (these are both obligate intracellular)
Name the spirochetes:
Borrelia, treponema, leptospira
What is the cell wall situation for mycoplasma? mycobacteria?
no cell wall
high lipid content in mycolic acid (use acid-fast stain)
Which gram stain poorly?
"these rascals may microscopically lack color"
treponema, rickettsia, mycobacteria, mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia (IC)
PAS stain for>
glycogen, mucopolysaccharides
diagnoses Whipple's disease
India ink?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Silver stain?
fungi, legionella
Special culture requirements for H. flu:
chocolate agar with factors X (hematin) and V (NAD)
Special culture requirements lactose fermenters:
mac-conkey's agar: lactose fermenters turn pink