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164 Cards in this Set

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What is genetics?
the study of heredity
NAME
is the study of heredity
Genetics
NAME
is the sum total of gentic material of the cell
Genome
What is the Genome?
is the sum total of gentic material of the cell
NAME
is all the DNA in the cell
genome
Most of the gentic info exists in ( ).
chromosomes
Most of the ( ) info exists in the chromosomes
Gentic
NAME
contains hundreds of genes that are composed of DNA
chromomsomes
Chromosomes contain hundreds of (1) that are composed of (2)
(1)genes (2)DNA
What are genes?
are specifc segements in the chromsome
NAME
are specifc segments in the chromosome
genes
the chromosome is the portion of ( ).
DNA molecule that codes for a certain cell function
NAME
is the portion of the DNA that codes for a certain cell function
chromosome
What is genotype?
is the orgainsims gentic make up
NAME
is the organism's gentic make up
genotype
What is the phenotype?
a genes traits
NAME
is a gene's traits
phenotype
The genotype dictates the experession of its ( ).
phenotype
the ( ) dictates the expression of its phenotype
genotype
What holds the DNA together?
hydrogen bonds together
HOW does the replication of DNA happen?
(1)enzymes uncoil the helix, unzipping the anitparallel strands
Replication of DNA ocurs in a ( ) direction
5'=3'
( ) ocurs in a 5'=3' direction
replication of DNA
What direction does the replication of DNA ocur?
5'=3' direction
NAME
5'=3'
lagging strand
NAME
3'=5'
lagging strand
What is the leading strand?
the 3'='5 strand of DNA
What is the lagging strand?
5'=3' strand of DNA
Name (5) enzymes that aid in the replication of DNA
(1)Helicase (2)Primase (3)RNA polymerases (4) DNA polymerases (5)Ligase
What is Helicase?
a enzyme that unzips the DNA
NAME
unzips the DNA during replication
Helicase
What is primase?
synthesizes the RNA polymerase primer
NAME
synthesizes the RNA polymerase primer
primase
What is the RNA polymerases?
adds bases to the chains during replication
NAME
adds bases to chains during DNA replication (2)
RNA and DNA polymerase
NAME
responsible for the final binding of nicks in the DNA
Ligase
What is ligase?
enzyme that seals together the covalent sugar-phosphate bonds in the DNA backbone
NAME
is a enzyme that seals togther the covalent sugar-phosphate bonds in the DNA backbone
Ligase
What is a mutation?
a change in genetic material
NAME
is a change in genetic material
mutation
Muatitons can be (1), (2), or (3).
(1)neutral (2) benefical (3)harmful
What are two of the different types of mutations>
(1)one base substitution (2)Frameshift
One base substitution causes (1).
the substution of one incorrect amino acid
What are two types of one base subsitution muations?
(1)missense (2)nonsense
What is missense?
is a one base subsutition mutation in which a protien made is functional but altered
NAME
is a one base substituation mutation in which a protien made is functional but altered
missense
What is nonsense?
is a one base subsutition mutation in which a fragment of a protien is lost making the protien non-functional
NAME
is a one base subsutition mutation in which the protien made is non-functional bc only a fragment of a protien results
nonsense
What is a frame shift?
the insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs
NAME
is the insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs
frame shift
What can cause frameshifts?
carcinogens
What is a mutagen?
is any agent that brings about a mutation
NAME
is any agent that brings about mutation
mutagen
GIve a ex of missense mutation
sicke cell disease
sickle cell disease is a ex of a (mutation)
missense
One base substituations are often called ( 1 )
point mutations
What are point mutations?
one base substitutions
NAME
are one base substitutions
point mutations
What are three stop codons?
(1)UAG (2) UAA (3) UGA
How is a missense mutation an advantage compared to a nonsense muation?
bc a missense mutation only effects 1 amino acids, therefore the protien is still able to perform its function
TACGATACGA-what is the RNA codon?
AUGCUAGCU
AUGCUAGCU-what is the anti-tRNA codon?
UAGCGAUCGA
What is the amino acid sequence for
UAC GAU CGA?
Tyr-Asp-Arg
A binds w ()
T or U
U binds w (1)
A
T binds w (1)
A
G binds w (1)
C
C binds w (1)
G
Give a ex of a mutagen
Nitrous acid
How does nitrous acid act as a mutagen?
by nitrous acid alters adenine so that it pairs w cytsoine
NAME
alters adenine so that it pairs w Cytsoine
Nitrous acid
NAME
Nitrous acid is a ex
Mutagen
What are nucleoside analogs?
are antiviral drugs and antitumor drugs that replace base during replication by subsituation
NAME
are antiviral drugs and antumor that replace bases during replication by substituation
Nucleoside analogs
NAME
are like neocleotides but dont have a PO4 group
necleoside
What are the two differenet types of Mutagens?
(1)nucleoside (2)frameshift
What are sponteneous mutations?
mutations that ocur in the absence of a mutagen
NAME
are mutations taht ocur in the absensce of a mutagen
spontenous mutations
Frameshifit mutagens are often ( 1)
potent carcinogens
(1) mutagens are often poent carcinogens
frameshift
Give (2)exs of frameshift mutagens
(1)benpyrene in smoke and soot (2) acridine dyes in experiments against herpes and viral infections
NAME
a ex is benpyrene in smoke and soot
frameshift mutagens
NAME
a ex if acridine dyes in experiements against herpes and viral infections
framshifit mutagens
NAME
is a mutation screening method that assumes that a mutant cell can be revert to a normal cell in the presence of a chemcial mutagen
Ames test
What bacteria did Ames look act to come up w the Ames test?
Salmonella Typhinmurinum
UV causes the formation of (1) which unrepaired cause (2)
(1)thymine dimers (2)skin cancer
What are two types of radiation?
(1)Ionizing (2)UV
Ionzing radiationc an cause the formation of (1)
ions that react with nucleosides and the deoxribose-phosphate backbone
(1) can cause the formaion of ions that react with nucleosides and the deoxribose-phosphate backbone
Ionizing radation
(1)can cause the formation of thymine dimers
UV radiation
NAME
study of heredity
genetics
NAME
direct trasnfer btwn two bacteria temporairly by physcial contact
conjugation
NAME
enzyme that adds nucleotides in the growing DNA
DNA polymerase
NAME
one paretnal double stranded DNA molecule is converted into two indentical daughter molecules
replication
NAME
insertetion or deletion of one or more base pairs during mutation
frameshift
NAME
transport of bacterial DNA by bacteriophages
transduction
NAME
stable, hertibable alteration in gene sequence
mutation
NAME
enzyme that inhibits gene expression by decreasing its synthesis
repressor
NAME
a substance that acts to induce transcription of a gene
inducer
NAME
tRNA molecule has sequecne complementary to a codon
anticodon
NAME
consist of promoter, operater, and structural genes
operon
What is transciption?
Dna is used to make mRNA
NAME
DNA is used to make mRNA
transcription
NAME
is mRNA synthesis
transcripition
What is translation?
protein synthesis
NAME
is protien synthesis
translation
What are codons?
are triplets of nirtogen bases that code for specfic amino acids
NAME
are triplets of nitrogen bases that code for specfic amino acids
codons
DNA encodes for the (1), (2), and (3), that molecules express these traits
(1)type (2)number (3) sequence of amino acids
What are introns?
are regions of sequences in chromosomes that do not code for protiens and separate exons
NAME
are regions of sequences in chromosomes that do not doe for protiens
introns
(1) cells have introns
Euk
NAME
sepearte exons
introns
What are exons?
are protien coding segments that are separted by introns
NAME
are protein coding segments that are sparted by introns
exons
T or F
introns are found in prok chromosomes
False
introns are sometimes refered to as (1)
junk DNA
Junk DNA is refered to as (1)
introns
mRNA synthesis requires (1)to delete streches that correspond to introns
spicling
(1) requries spicling to delete streches that correspond to introns
mRNA synthesis
What are two ways that mutations can be repaired?
(1)light (2)dark
What is light repair?
(1)requires light (2)activated by DNA photolyase (3)removes dimer and bases are replaced
NAME
requires light, activated by DNA photolyase, removes dimer and bases are replaced
light repair
What is the enzyme DNA photolyase?
removes dimer and replaces bases in light repair
Dark repair is also called (1)
excision repair
excision repair is also called (1)
dark repair
NAME
does not require light to fix muattions
dark repair
What are the four main enzymes working that work in dark repair?
(1)restriction endonuclease (2) exonuclease (3)DNA polymerase (4)ligase
NAME
cuts the sugar-phosphate backbone
restriction endonuclease
What is restriction endonuclease?
cuts the sugar-phosphate backbone
NAME
cuts the sugar-phosphate backbone
restriction endonuclease
NAME
removes the damaged nucleotides in dark repair
exonculease
What is exonulease?
removes the damaged nucleotides in dark repair
Draw the replication of DNA
see notes
NAMES
inserts the correct bases during dark repair
DNA polymerase
NAME
seals the backbone during dark repair
ligase
What are repression and Induction controled by?
operons
(1) and (2) are controled by operons
(1)repression (2) induction
How are genes turned off?
by the interaction of a repressor protien and a substrate
How is transcription stoped?
by the attachment of a repressor protien to DNA which blocks RNA polymerase
When the repressor protien attaches to a segment of DNA physically blocking RNA polymerase during replication, What is the result?
transcritption stops
Inducible operons are normally (1)
turned off
How are inducible operons turned on?
by the presence of lactose
(1) are turned on by the presence of lactose
Inductible operons
What happens when inductible operons are turned on?
(1)Lactose binds to the repressor protien (2)the repressor protien changes shape and detaches from the DNA (3)When the repressor protien is released, transcription and translation ocur and an enzyme product is produced to breakd down lactose
(1) such as tryphotphan operan are usally on until enough of the end product accumulates and binds to the repressor protien
repressible
What is transformation?
transfer of DNA without agents
For transformation to ocur?
(1)need a free donor fragment (2)a live cell
Who discovered transformation?
Griffith
What was Griffith's experiment?
done w smooth pneumoccit w/ smooth and rough cells
(1)smooth cells =death
(2)rough cells= alive
(3)heat killed smooth= death
(4)smooth cells from dead mice and roough cells= death
What is transduction?
transfer of DNA by phages
NAME
transfer of DNA by phages
transduction
What is generalized transduction?
random hitching of disintergarting w host DNA
NAME
random hitching of disintergrarting w host DNA
generalized DNA
What is speaclized transduction?
when only certain genes are transfered
NAME
is when only certain types of genes are transfered
speaclized transduction
What is horizontal gene transfer?
transfer of gene btwn cells of the same generation
What is vertical gene transfer?
transfer of genes btwn genes of cell
NAME
transfer of genes btwn genes of cell
vertical gene transfer
NAME
transfer of genes btwn cells of the same generation
horizontal gene transfer
During Cojugation, F- = (1) and F+=(2)
(1) Fertility factor
(2)asbence of fertility factor
(1) used rats to find out about transformation
Griffth
What bacteria did Griffth use on his rats?
Streptococcus Phenumonia
NAME
large base sequences that regualrly depart and reinsert into other chromosomal sites, from chromosomes to plasmid, or plasmid to chromosome. Sometimes they replicate before jumping
Transposons