Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/95

Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ionic bond
a chemical bond formed when atoms gain or lose electrons in the outer energy levels
proton
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
covalent bond
a chemical bond in which the electrons of one atom are shared with another atom
electron acceptor
an ion that picks up an electron that has been lost by another atom
ION
A NEGATIVELY OR POSITIVELY CHARGED ATOM OR GROUP OF ATOMS
CHEMICAL ELEMENT
A FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE COMPOSED OF ATOMS THAT HAVE THE SAME ATOMIC NUMBER AND BEHAVE THE SAME WAY CHEMICALLY
ANABOLISM
ALL SYNTHESIS REACTIONS IN A LIVING ORGANISM; THE BUILDING OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES FROM SIMPLER ONES
BASE
A SUBSTANCE THAT DISSOCIATES INTO ONE OR MORE HYDROXIDE IONS (OH-)AND ONE OR MORE POSITIVE IONS
ANION
AN ION WITH A NEGATIVE CHARGE
CONDENSATION REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH A MOLECULE OF WATER IS RELEASED; ALSO CALLED DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
OLIGOSACCHARIDE
A CARBOHYDRATE CONSISTING OF 2 TO APPROXIMATELY 20 MONOSACCHARIDES
DISSOCIATION
THE SEPARATION OF A COMPOUND INTO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS IN A SOLUTION
COLLISION THEORY
THE PRINCIPLE THAT CHEMICAL REACTIONS OCCUR BECAUSE ENERGY IS GAINED AS PARTICLES COLLIDE
REVERSIBLE REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH THE END PRODUCTS CAN READILY REVERT TO THE ORIGINAL MOLECULES
HYDROLYSIS
A DECOMPOSITION REACTION IN WHICH CHEMICALS REACT WITH THE H+ AND THE OH- OF A WATER MOLECULE
CARBOHYDRATE
AN ORGANIC COMPOUND COMPOSED OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN WITH THE HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PRESENT IN A 2:1 RATIO; CARBOHYDRATES INCLUDE SUGARS, STARCHES AND CELLULOSE
MOLE
AN AMOUNT OF A CHEMICAL EQUAL TO THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF ALL THE ATOMS IN A MOLECULE OF THE CHEMICAL
ENDERGONIC REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT REQUIRES ENERGY
PEPTIDE BOND
A BOND JOINING THE AMINO GROUP OF ONE AMINO ACID TO THE CARBOXYL GROUP OF A SECOND AMINO ACID WITH THE LOSS OF A WATER MOLECULE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
A SUM OF THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF ALL ATOMS MAKING UP A MOLECULE
CHEMICAL BOND
AN ATTRACTIVE FORCE BETWEEN ATOMS FORMING A MOLECULE
BUFFER
A SUBSTANCE THAT TENDS TO STABILIZE THE pH OF A SOLUTION
ISOMER
ONE OR TWO MOLECULES WITH THE SAME CHEMICAL FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT STRUCTURES
D-ISOMER
A STEREOISOMER
CHEMICAL ENERGY
THE ENERGY OF A CHEMICAL REACTION
PROTEIN
A LARGE MOLECULE CONTAINING CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN (AND SULFUR); SOME PROTEINS HAVE A HELICAL STRUCTURE AND OTHERS ARE PLEATED SHEETS
SULFHYYDRYL GROUP
--SH
ELECTRON SHELL
A REGION OF AN ATOM WHERE ELECTRONS ORBIT THE NUCLEUS, CORRESPONDING TO AN ENERGY LEVEL
INORGANIC COMPOUND
A SMALL MOLECULE THAT DOES NOT CONTAIN CARBON AND HYDROGEN
LIPID
A NON-WATER SOLUBLE ORGANIC MOLECULE, INCLUDING TRIGLYCERIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND STEROLS
IONIZATION
THE SEPARATION (DISSOCIATION) OF A MOLECULE INTO IONS
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN SHELLS OR ENERGY LEVELS IN AN ATOM
ELECTRON DONOR
AN ION THAT GIVES UP AN ELECTRON TO ANOTHER ATOM
AMINO ACID
AN ORGANIC ACID CONTAINING AN AMINO GROUP AND A CARBOXYL GROUP
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
THE CLASS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS THAT COMPRISES MESSENGER RNA, RIBOSOMAL RNA, AND TRANSFER RNA
ENZYME
A MOLECULE THAT CATALYZES BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A LIVING ORGANISM, USUALLY A PROTEIN
SYNTHESIS REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH TWO OR MORE ATOMS COMBINE TO MAKE A NEW, LARGER MOLECULE
NUCLEOSIDE
A COMPOUND CONSISTING OF A PURINE OR PYRIMIDINE BASE AND A PENTOSE SUGAR
STEREOISOMERS
TWO MOLECULES CONSISTING OF THE SAME ATOMS, ARRANGED IN THE SAME MANNER, BUT DIFFERING IN THEIR RELATIVE POSITIONS;MIRROR IMAGES; ALSO CALLED D-ISOMER AND I-ISOMER
AMINO GROUP
--NH2
CATALYST
A SUBSTANCE THAT INCREASES THE RATE OF A CHEMICAL REACTION BUT IS NOT ALTERED ITSELF
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE (ADP)
A SUBSTANCE FORMED WHEN ATP IS HYDROLYZED AND ENERGY IS RELEASED
CATION
A POSITIVELY CHARGED ION
SUBSTRATE
ANY COMPOUND WITH WHICH AN ENZYME REACTS
MOLECULE
A COMBINATION OF ATOMS FORMING A SPECIFIC CHEMICAL COMPOUND
SOLVENT
A DISSOLVING MEDIUM
PYRIMIDINES
A CLASS OF NUCLEIC ACID BASES THAT INCLUDES URACIL,THYMINE AND CYTOSINE
EXERGONIC REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT RELEASES ENERGY
EXCHANGE REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT HAS BOTH SYNTHESIS AND DECOMPOSITION COMPONENTS
I-ISOMER
A STEREOISOMER
DISACCHARIDE
A SUGAR CONSISTING OF TWO SIMPLE SUGARS OR MONOSACCHARIDES
CARBOXYL GROUP
--COOH
ATOM
THE SMALLEST UNIT OF MATTER THAT CAN ENTER INTO A CHEMICAL REACTION
TRANSFER RNA (tRNA)
THE TYPE OF RNA MOLECULE THAT BRINGS AMINO ACIDS TO THE RIBOSOMAL SITES WHERE THEY ARE INCORPORATED INTO PROTEINS
MONOMER
A SMALL MOLECULE THAT COLLECTIVELY COMBINES TO FORM POLYMERS
COMPOUND
A SUBSTANCE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
VALENCE
THE COMBINING CAPACITY OF AN ATOM OR A MOLECULE
ORGANIC COMPOUND
A MOLECULE THAT CONTAINS CARBON AND HYDROGEN
NEUTRON
AN UNCHARGED PARTICLE IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
ATOMIC WEIGHT
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
MONOSACCHARIDE
A SIMPLE SUGAR CONSISTING OF 3-7 CARBON ATOMS
SALT
A SUBSTANCE THAT DISSOLVES IN WATER TO CATIONS AND ANIONS NEITHER OF WHICH IS H+ OR OH-
NUCLEIC ACID
A MACROMOLECULE CONSISTING OF NUCLEOTIDES; DNA AND RNA ARE NUCLEIC ACIDS
STEROID
A SPECIFIC GROUP OF LIPIDS INCLUDING CHOLESTEROL AND HORMONES
DISULFIDE BOND
A COVALENT BOND THAT HOLDS TOGETHER TWO ATOMS OF SULFUR
SOLUTE
A SUBSTANCE DISSOLVED IN ANOTHER SUBSTANCE
R
USED TO REPRESENT NONFUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF A MOLECULE
CARBON SKELETON
THE BASIC CHAIN OR RING OF CARBON ATOMS IN A MOLECULE
DEOXYRIBOSE
A FIVE-CARBON SUGAR CONTAINED IN DNA NUCLEOTIDES
ACID
A SUBSTANCE THAT DISSOCIATES INTO ONE OR MORE HYDROGEN IONS (H+) AND ONE OR MORE NEGATIVE IONS
TRIGLYCERIDE
A SIMPLE LIPID CONSISTING OF GLYCEROL AND THREE FATTY ACIDS
MESSENGER RNA (mRNA)
THE TYPE OF RNA MOLECULE THAT DIRECTS THE INCORPORATION OF AMINO ACIDS INTO PROTEINS
PHOSPHATE GROUP
A PORTION OF A PHOSPHORIC ACID MOLECULE ATTACHED TO SOME OTHER MOLECULE
DECOMPOSITION REACTION
A CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH BONDS ARE BROKEN TO PRODUCE SMALLER PARTS FROM A LARGE MOLECULE
ACTIVATION ENERGY
THE MINIMAL COLLISION ENERGY REQUIRED FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION TO OCCUR
CHEMICAL REACTION
THE PROCESS OF MAKING OR BREAKING BONDS BETWEEN ATOMS
RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA)
THE TYPE OF RNA MOLECULE THAT FORMS RIBOSOMES
RIBOSE
A FIVE-CARBON SUGAR THAT IS PART OF RIBONUCLEOTIDE MOLECULES AND RNA
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
AN ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN AN ORGANIC MOLECULE THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MOST OF THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THAT MOLECULE
DENATURATION
A CHANGE IN THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN, USUALLY MAKING IT NONFUNCTIONAL
ELECTRON
A NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLE IN MOTION AROUND THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
MACROMOLECULE
A LARGE ORGANIC MOLECULE
POLYMER
A MOLECULE CONSISTING OF A SEQUENCE OF SIMILAR MOLECULES OR MONOMERS
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)
AN IMPORTANT INTRACELLULAR ENERGY SOURCE
ATOMIC NUMBER
THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
CHEMISTRY
THE SCIENCE OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ATOMS AND MOLECULES
pH
THE SYMBOL FOR HYDROGEN ION (H+) CONCENTRATION;A MEASURE OF THE RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF A SOLUTION
POLYSACCHARIDE
A CARBOHYDRATE CONSISTING OF 8 OR MORE MONOSACCHARIDES JOINED THROUGH DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
ISOTOPE
A FORM OF A CHEMICAL ELEMENT IN WHICH THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS IS DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER FORMS OF THAT ELEMENT
HYDROGEN BOND
A BOND BETWEEN A HYDROGEN ATOM COVALENTLY BONDED TO OXYGEN OR NITROGEN AND ANOTHER COVALENTLY BONDED OXYGEN OR NITROGEN ATOM
ENERGY LEVEL
POTENTIAL ENERGY OF AN ELECTRON IN AN ATOM
POLAR MOLECULE
A MOLECULE WITH AN UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES
CATABOLISM
ALL DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS IN A LIVING ORGANISM; THE BREAKDOWN OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS INTO TO SIMPLER ONES
NUCLEOTIDE
A COMPOUND CONSISTING OF A PURINE OR PYRIMIDINE BASE, A FIVE-CARBON SUGAR, AND A PHOSPHATE
PURINES
A CLASS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS BASES THAT INCLUDES ADENINE AND GUANINE