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74 Cards in this Set

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predisposing factor
anything that makes the body more susceptible to a disese or alters the course of a disease
sign
a change due to a disease that a person can observe and measure
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC)
A BRANCH OF THE US PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE THAT SERVES AS A CENTRAL SOURCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INFORMATION
VEHICLE TRANSMISSION
THE TRANSMISSION OF A PATHOGEN BY AN INANIMATE RESERVOIR
INFECTION
THE INVASION OR GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE BODY
PATHOGENESIS
THE MANNER IN WHICH A DISEASE DEVELOPS
MORTALITY
THE NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM A SPECIFIC NOTIFIABLE DISEASE
SUBACUTE DISEASE
A DISEASE WITH SYMPTOMS THAT ARE INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN ACUTE AND CHRONIC
ACUTE DISEASE
A DISEASE IN WHICH SYMPTOMS DEVELOP RAPIDLY BUT LAST FOR ONLY A SHORT TIME
OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN
A MICROORGANISM THAT DOES NOT ORDINARILY CAUSE A DISEASE BUT CAN BECOME PATHOGENIC UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES
MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION
THE PROCESS BY WHICH ARTHROPODS TRANSMIT INFECTIONS BY CARRYING PATHOGENS ON THEIR FEET AND OTHER BODY PARTS
INCIDENCE
THE FRACTION OF THE POPULATION THAT CONTRACTS A DISEASE DURING A PARTICULAR PERIOD OF TIME
INDIRECT CONTACT TRANSMISSION
THE SPREAD OF PATHOGENS BY FOMITES (NONLIVING OBJECTS)
HERD IMMUNITY
THE PRESENCE OF IMMUNITY IN MOST OF A POPULATION
ZOONOSIS
A DISEASE THAT OCCURS PRIMARILY IN WILD AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS BUT CAN BE TRANSMITTED TO HUMANS
ENDEMIC DISEASE
A DISEASE THAT IS CONSTANTLY PRESENT IN A CERTAIN POPULATION
SYNDROME
A SPECIFIC GROUP OF SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS THAT ACCOMPANY A DISEASE
CHRONIC DISEASE
AN ILLNESS THAT DEVELOPS SLOWLY AND IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE OR RECUR FOR LONG PERIODS
DIRECT CONTACT TRANSMISSION
A METHOD OF SPREADING INFECTION FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER THROUGH SOME KIND OF CLOSE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE HOSTS
VIREMIA
THE PRESENCE OF VIRUSES IN THE BLOOD
ANTAGONISM
ACTIVE OPPOSTITION; FOR EXAMPLE, BEYOND TWO DRUGS OR TWO MICROBES
PATHOLOGY
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF DISEASE
RESERVOIR OF INFECTION
A CONTINUAL SOURCE OF INFECTION
BACTEREMIA
A CONDITION IN WHICH THERE ARE BACTERIA IN THE BLOOD
HOST
AN ORGANISM INFECTED BY A PATHOGEN
PROTAL OF EXIT
THE ROUTE BY WHICH A PATHOGEN LEAVES THE BODY
SECONDARY INFECTION
AN INFECTION CAUSED BY AN OPPORTUNISTIC MICROBE AFTER A PRIMARY INFECTION HAS WEAKENED THE HOST'S DEFENSES
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE
A DISEASE THAT IS NOT TRANSMITTED FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER
PANDEMIC DISEASE
AN EPIDEMIC THAT OCCURS WORLDWIDE
ETIOLOGY
THE STUDY OF THE CAUSE OF DISEASE
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION
AN INFECTION THAT DEVELOPS DURING THE COURSE OF A HOSPITAL STAY AND WAS NOT PRESENT AT THE TIME THE PATIENT WAS ADMITTED
LOCAL INFECTION
AN INFECTION IN WHICH PATHOGENS ARE LIMITED TO A SMALL AREA OF THE BODY
LATENT DISEASE
A DISEASE CHARACTERIZED BY A PERIOD OF NO SYMPTOMS WHEN THE PATHOGEN IS INACTIVE
MMWR
MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT' A CDC PUBLICATION CONTAINING DATA ON NOTIFIABLE DISEASES AND TOPICS OF SPECIAL INTEREST
PRODROMAL PERIOD
THE TIME FOLLOWING THE INCUBATION PERIOD WHEN THE FIRST SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS APPEAR
MORTALITY RATE
THE NUMBER OF DEATHS RESULTING FOR A DISEASE IN A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME IN RELATION TO THE TOTAL POPULATION
ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
COMPARISON OF A DISEASED GROUP AND O HEALTHY GOURP TO DETERMINE THE CAUSE OF THE DISEASE
SYSTEMIC (GENERALIZED) INFECTION
AN INFECTION THROUGHOUT THE BODY
SPORADIC DISEASE
A DISEASE THAT OCCURS OCCASIONALLY IN A POPULATION
NOTIFIABLE DISEASE
A DISEASE THAT PHYSICIANS MUST REPORT TO THE US PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE; ALSO CALLED REPORTABLE DISEASE
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
ANY DISEASE THAT CAN BE SPREAD FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER
MUTUALISM
A TYPE OF SYMBIOSIS IN WHICH BOTH ORGANISMS OR POPULATIONS ARE BENEFITED
CONTACT TRANSMISSION
THE SPREAD OF DISEASE BY DIRECT OR INDIRECT CONTACT OR VIA DROPLETS
SYMPTOM
A CHANGE IN BODY FUNCTION THAT IS FELT BY A PATIENT AS A RESULT OF A DISEASE
FOMITE
A NONLIVING OBJECT THAT CAN SPREAD INFECTION
DROPLET TRANSMISSION
THE TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION BY SMALL LIQUID DROPLETS CARRYING MICROORGANISMS
NORMAL MICROBIOTA
THE MIRCROORGANISMS THAT COLONIZE A HOST WITHOUT CAUSING DISEASE; ALSO CALLED NORMAL FLORA
MORBIDITY RATE
THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE AFFECTED BY A DISEASE IN A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME IN RELATION TO THE TOTAL POPULATION
SEPTICEMIA
THE PROLIFERATION OF BACTERIA IN THE BLOOD, ACCOMPANIED BY FEVER; SOMETIMES CAUSES ORGAN DAMAGE
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE (EID)
A NEW OR CHANGING DISEASE THAT IS INCREASING OR HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INCREASE IN INCIDENCE IN THE NEAR FUTURE
TOXEMIA
THE PRESENCE OF TOXINS IN THE BLOOD
CONTAGIOUS DISEASE
A DISEASE THAT IS EASILY SPREAD FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER
BIOLOGICAL TRANSMISSION
THE TRANSMISSION OF A PATHOGEN FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER WHEN THE PATHOGEN REPRODUCES IN THE VECTOR
INCUBATION PERIOD
THE TIME INTERVAL BETWEEN THE ACTUAL INFECTION AND THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF ANY SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE
COMPROMISED HOST
A HOST WHOSE RESISTANCE TO INFECTION IS IMPAIRED
SUBCLINICAL INFECTION
AN INFECTION THE DOES NOT CAUSE A NOTICEABLE ILLNESS; ALSO CALLED INAPPARENT INFECTION
EPIDEMIOLOGY
THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES WHEN AND WHERE DISEASES OCCUR AND HOW THEY ARE TRANSMITTED
MORBIDITY
() THE INCIDENCE OF A SPECIFIC DISEASE (2) THE CONDITION OF BEING DISEASED
AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION
THE SPREAD OF PATHOGENS FARTHER THAN 1 METER IN AIR FROM RESERVOIR TO SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
COMMENSALISM
A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH TWO ORGANISMS LIVE IN ASSOCIATION AND ONE IS BENEFITED WHILE THE OTHER IS NEITHER BENEFITED NOR HARMED
PREVALENCE
THE FRACTION OF A POPULATION HAVING A SPECIFIC DISEASE AT A GIVEN TIME
EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
THE STUDY OF A DISEASE USING CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS
VECTOR
(1) A PLASMID OR VIRUS USED IN GENETIC ENGINEERING TO INSERT GENES INTO A CELL (2) AN ARTHROPOD THAT CARRIES DISEASE-CAUSING ORGANISMS FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER
DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY
THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF ALL DATA REGARDING THE OCCURRENCE OF A DISEASE TO DETERMINE ITS CAUSE
PERIOS OF CONVALESCENCE
THE RECOVERY PERIOD, WHEN THE BODY RETURNS TO ITS PREDISEASE STATE
FOCAL INFECTION
A SYSTEMIC INFECTION THAT BEGAN AS AN INFECTION IN ONE PLACE
PARASITISM
A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH ONE ORGANISM (THE PARASITE) EXPLOITS ANOTHER (THE HOST) WITHOUT PROVIDING ANY BENEFIT IN RETURN
TRANSIENT MICROBIOTA
THE MICROORGANISMS THAT ARE PRESENT IN AN ANIMAL FOR A SHORT TIME WITHOUT CAUSING A DISEASE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
THE LACK OF RESISTANCE TO A DISEASE
PRIMARY INFECTION
AN ACUTE INFECTION THAT CAUSES THE INTIAL ILLNESS
DISEASE
AN ABNORMAL STATE IN WHICH PART OR ALL OF THE BODY IS NOT PROPERLY ADJUSTED OR IS INCAPABLE OF PERFORMING NORMAL FUNCTIONS; AND CHANGE FROM A STATE OF HEALTH
EPIDEMIC DISEASE
A DISEASE ACQUIRED BY MANY HOSTS IN A GIVEN AREA IN A SHORT TIME
KOCH'S POSTULATES
CRITERIA USED TO DETERMINE THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
SYMBIOSIS
THE LIVING TOGETHER OF TWO DIFFERENT ORGANISMS OR POPULATIONS