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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Some symptoms of HIV disease:
__________ rash, fever, headache, enlarged lymph nodes.
Generalized
Some people with HIV develope symptoms of the ______ system that range from moodiness to seizure.
CNS
Symptoms constitute _________ ___________ ____________ (ARS). This subsides in ~6 weeks.
Acute retroviral syndrome
Acute illness followed by ___________ period. This may end with persistant enlargement of lymph nodes, this is termed ______________ syndrome (LAS).
Asymptomatic period
Lymphadenopathy
Immunodeficiency symptoms include fever, _________ ______, fatigue and diarrhea. This is referred to as ______-__________ complex (ARC).
Weight loss
AIDS-related complex
The causative agent of HIV is the __________ _____________ _______ type ____ (HIV-1).
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1
HIV-1 belongs to _______virus subgroup of _______virus family.
Lentivirus
Retrovirus
HIV-2 is similar in structure to HIV-1, but is _____________ distinct.
Antigenically
HIV-___ causes AIDS in parts of West Africa and India while HIV-___ causes AIDS in the US and most other parts of the world.
2: West Africa and India
1: US and other parts of the world
HIV-___ does not exist within the US.
2
HIV-2 transmission is _______ efficient than HIV-1 and the disease progresses ___________.
Less
Slower
HIV attacks many different kinds of cells, but the most critical are the ___________ _____ cells.
Helper T
Viral ______ attaches to CD4cell surface receptor on the T-cells.
gp120
Viral _______ induces membrane fusion by interacting with ___________ cell surface receptor (CCR).
gp41
chemokine
After entry, DNA copies of RNA genome are produced using ____________ ______________ viral enzyme. This DNA copy integrates and hides on host _____________.
Reverse transcriptase
Chromosome
In activated cells the virus leaves the cell genome and _______ the cell and in doing so releases other viruses to infect other cells.
Kills
Macrophages have ______ receptors. Infected macrophages are ___________ not not killed.
CD4
Impaired
HIV is highly _________, illustrated in the fact that they kill T-cells, but not all cells.
Specific
T cells allow immune ________ switching. Without this, only IgM is made, which results in death.
Class
Destruction of helper T cells can occur through ________ following HIV replication.
Lysis
Destruction of helper T cells can occur through attack by HIV-specific ______toxic CD8+ T _____________.
Cytotoxic
Lymphocytes
The CTL kills the HIV-infected ____ cell.
T
Antibodies bind to the gp120 and gp41 viral glycoproteins on infected T cells and mediate the ___________ of that cell.
Killing
_____________ is excelerated in HIV infections.
Apoptosis
Helper T cells can be destroyed by _________ of infected with uninfected cells.
Fusion
In nearly ____% of all cases, immune system slowly loses ground to the virus.
80%
The disease is classified as AIDS when the CD4+ count falls to below ______ cells per microlitre.
200
Atypical progression of disease occurs within ____%. This could either mean that the disease progresses to AIDS in a few months, or may be AIDS-free for 20 years.
10%
List the three contributing factors of AIDS starting with most important:
1. Indiscriminate sexual intercourse
2. Blood and blood products
3. Mother to infant (breat feeding carries particular risks)
HIV encodes ____________ that are recognized by cellular TF's. These TF's are active only during the __________ ____________.
Promotors
Immune response
In T cells, these TF's lead to the expression of not only the cells genome but HIV genome too (____________).
Replication
This expression of the HIV genome leads to the death of the T cells, thus the body has no _____________ immune response.
Adaptive
A hole in the T cell ____________ occurs leaving the person open to other infections.
Repertoire
True or False
There is no approved vaccine for HIV and most people infected are unaware.
True
Viruses on surfaces can be killed with ___________ and heat at 56C for more than 30 minutes.
Disinfectant
What is the greatest tool for the control of HIV?
Knowledge of transmission
Treatment is directed at "__________" of drugs. Combinations of reverse ___________ inhibitors and ____________ inhibitors. This therapy is called HAART, this stands for:
Cocktail
Transcriptase
Protease
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
Reverse transcriptase ____________ fall into two categories: Nucleoside _________ ____________ ___________ and Non-__________ reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and
Non-nucleoside RTI
There are 6 __________ ___________ that act late in HIV replicationto prevent packaging of viral proteins. Since this stops RNA-->DNA, it only works in cells that are actively ____________.
Protease Inhibitors
Replicating virus.
HAART does not cure AIDS! Many strains will fail to respond due to _____________.
Resistance
In theory, the vaccine could be used in two ways:
1. __________ vaccine (immunize unaffected individuals with the vaccine)
2. __________ vaccine (Boost immnity of those already infected)
1. Prevention vaccine
2. Therapeutic vaccine
Successful vaccine must produce _________ and blood stream immunity and get around HIV ____________ and stimulate cellular and humoral immunity.
Mucosal
Variability
Vaccine should induce __________ _____________ against free virions and prevent direct spread of HIV from cell to cell.
Neutralizing antibodies
____________ _________ causes unusual tumors arising from blood or lymphatic vessels in multiple locations.
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Karposi's Sarcoma is an AIDS defining condition. It is caused by the human _____________-8.
Herpesvirus
Human herpesvirus-8 infects ___________ cells that line blood and lymphatic vessels. It persists mostly in it's _________ form.
Endothelial
Latent
Presence of herpesvirus-8 causes two main changes that result in tumor formation:
1. Cells assume spindle shape and proliferate
2. Extensive formation of new blood vessels occur.
B-cell lymphomas are 60-_____ times more common in AIDS patients.
60-100
Lymph node enlargement reflects proliferation of lymphoid cells in response to high level of unregulated ___________ ___________.
Cytokine release
___________ rarely occur in the brain except with AIDS patients (b/c the blood brain barrier doesn't work right).
Lymphomas
______________ is a common fungus that does not affect immnocompetent people.
Pneumocytosis
Pneumocytosis begins gradually with slowly increasing shortness of breath and rapid breathing. Fever is slight or absent and ___% have a non-productive cough.
50%
Why are the skin and mucous membranes dusky in patients with Pneumocytosis?
Poor oxygenation of blood.
The causative agent of Pneumocytosis is Pneumocystis __________, which is a tiny fungus belonging to the phylum ___________.
carin
Ascomycota
Pneumocystis carin has a unique ______ ______, making it difficult to treat with antifungal meds.
Cell wall
__________ are inhaled into the lungs and attach to the _________ walls which become thickened and scarred. This interferes with free passage of O2.
Spores
Alveolar
Pneumocytosis is very common in dogs and cats. Serological tests show that most kids get infected by age ______. The infection is _____________ and is eliminated within a year.
2 1/2
Asymptomatic
Source of transmission in humans is unknown. Most cases of Pneumocytosis occur in _______________.
Immunocompromised
Epidemics in nursing homes and among hospitalized malnourished infants suggests ____________ transmission.
Airborne
Pneumocytosis occurs in ___/___'s of AIDS pateients and was once their leading cause of death.
4/5
Pneumocytosis is largely preventable with regular doses of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TxS) which takes mortality from near 100% to _____%.
30
After treatment, patient must recieve __________ medication indefinatly until CD4+ T cells rise above 200 cells per microlitre.
Preventative
Toxoplasmosis, HSV 1 and 2, Cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avis are all _____________ infections of AIDS.
Opportunistic