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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with a codon during protein synthesis
a group of enzymes each on of which catalyzes the attachment of the correct amino acid to a tRNA
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
in reference to double-stranded DNA, one strand runs 5' -> 3' and the other 3' -> 5'
a genetic element, usually circular in prokaryotes and linear in eukaryotes, carrying genes essential to cellular function
a sequence of three bases in mRNA that encodes an amino acid
nucleic acid sequences that can base-pair w/ each other
an enzyme found in most prokaryotes that introduces negative supercoils in DNA
DNA gyrase
an enzyme that synthesizes a new strand of DNA in the 5' -> 3' direction using an antiparallel DNA strand as a template
DNA polymerase
the coding DNA sequences in a split gene (contrast with intron)
a segment of DNA specifying a protein (via mRNA, a tRNA, or an rRNA
the total complement of genes contained within a cell or a virus
the intervening noncoding DNA sequences in a split gene (contrast with exon)
an RNA molecule that contains the genetic information necessary to encode a particular protein
messenger RNA, mRNA
a group of proteins that help other proteins fold or re-fold from a partially denatured state
molecular chaperones
a cluster of genes whose expression is controlled by a single operator
an unprocessed RNA molecule that is the direct product of transcription
primary transcript
a molecule (usually a polynucleotide) to which DNA polymerase can attach the first deoxyribonucleotide during DNA replication
a site on DNA to which RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
synthesis of DNA using DNA as a template
types of RNA found in the ribosome; some participate actively in the process of protein synthesis
ribosomal RNA, rRNA
a cytoplasmic particle composed of ribosomal RNA and protein, which is a central part of the protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell
an RNA molecule that can catalyze chemical reactions
an enzyme that synthesizes RNA in the 5' -> 3' direction using an antiparallel DNA strand as a template
RNA polymerase
the conversion of a precursor RNA to its mature form
RNA processing
DNA synthesis yielding new double helices, each consisting of one parental and one progeny strand
semiconservative replication
a complex of several proteins and small RNAs that functions to remove introns and join adjacent exons to form mature mRNA in eukaryotic cells
the RNA processing step by which introns are removed and exons joined
an enzyme that contains a short RNA template and that functions to replicate the ends (telomeres) of eukaryotic chromsomes
the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
an adaptor molecule used in translation that has specificity for both a particular amino acid and for one or more codons
transfer RNA, tRNA
the synthesis of protein using the genetic information in messenger RNA as a template