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41 Cards in this Set

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many of the molecules involved in genetic information flow are
macromolecules
functional unit of genetic information
gene
gene-etic
a gene specifies...
sequence of amino acids in a protein
in all cells, genes are composed of...
DNA
DNA specifies the sequence of a protein only with the help of an intermediate macromolecule, which is ___
RNA
DNA transcribes to ___
DNA, RNA, and protein all contain biological information and are often called....
informational macromolecules
they have biological info on them, and are macromolecules.
the duplication of DNA, produces two double helices
replication
synthesis of RNA using DNA template, generally goes to mRNA, unused portion of DNA will go to tRNA and rRNA
transcription
the synthesis of protein using the genetic information in messenger RNA as a template
translation
it takes three bases on the mRNA to encode a single amino acid; this triplet of bases is a...
codon
it codes the amino acid
the genetic code of codons is translated into protein by means of the protein synthesizing system. this system consiss of...
ribosomes, tRNA, various enzymes
these tiny organelles synthesize protein in a cell, also, transferers and -ases.
the transfer of sequence information is unidirectional, it travels from ___ to ____
nucleic acid to protein
process by which RNA is used for RNA synthesis
RNA replication
similar to what DNA does to make more DNA
the use of sequence information in RNA to specify a sequence in DNA
reverse transcription
transcription going backwards
in eukaryotes, protein-encoding genes are split into two or more coding regions - ____, and noncoding regions separating coding regions - ____
exons, introns
both intron and exon regions are transcribed into the
primary transcript/pre-mRNA
mature mRNA differs from pre-mRNA in that
intron regions are removed
three processes involved in genetic information flow
replication, transcription, translation
the four different nucleic acid bases of DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
genetic information for all cellular processes is stored in DNA in the ____ of bases along the polynucleotide chain
sequence
the backbone of DNA is formed by alternating units of _____ and the sugar _____
phosphate, deoxyribose
connected to each sugar in DNA is one of the nucleic acid ___
bases
the phosphate connecting two sugars spans from the ____ carbon of one sugar to the ____ carbon of the adjacent sugar
3', 5'
at one end of the DNA molecule, the sugar has a phosphate on the ___ hydroxyl, whereas at the other end, the sugar has a free hydroxyl at the ___ position
5', 3'
DNA exists as two polynucleotide strands whose base sequences are___ in all cellular organism chromosomes
complementary
The two strands in the double stranded DNA molecule are arranged in ________ fashion
antiparallel
5'3' vs. 3'5'
the two strands in DNA are wrapped around each other forming a
double helix
proteins that interact specifically with DNA engage predominantly with the ____, where there is a considerable amount of free space
major groove
the size of a DNA molecule can be expressed in terms of its ___; each nucleotide has a molecular weight of about ___
molecular weight, 330
another means of expressing size of DNA molecules; measured in kilobase/kilobase pairs
number of 1000s of bases/base pairs per molecule

number of millions - megabases/megabase pairs
a base pair takes up ____ nanometers in length along the helix; each turn of the helix contains ___ base pairs
0.34 nm, 10 base pairs
replication is ____; the resulting DNA each contain one parental and one new strand
semiconservative
precursor of each new nucleotide in the chain is a nucleoside ______, from which the two terminal phophates are removed and the internal phosphate is attached covalently to deoxyribose of the growing chain
5'triphosphate
DNA replication always proceeds from the ____ end to the ____ end
5' end , 3'-hydroxyl end
the _____ of the incoming nucleotide is attached to the ____ of the previously added nucleotide in replication of DNA
5' phosphate, 3' hydroxyl
enzymes that catalyze addition of the nucleotides; none are known to begin a new chain however
DNA polymerases
DNA polymerases synthesize new DNA in the ____ direction
5' > 3'
the site at which DNA polmerase can attach the first nucleotide; in most cases, this is a short stretch of RNA
primer
enzyme which polymerizes RNA; synthesizes a short stretch of RNA which acts a s a primer
primase
At the growing end of an RNA primer is ____ to which DNA polymerase can add the first deoxyribonucleotide
3' OH group
the RNA primer begins a new chain, however the continued extension of the molecule occurs as ___
DNA