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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In all organisms except some viruses the genetic information is
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Where is most DNA contained in the cell?
chromosome as a single, circular molecule of DNA
The chromosome exists as thread like fibers associated with some protein and is localized in the cytosol in a space called the ?
How does a chromasome fit inside a small cell?
chromasome is supercoiled
small, closed loops of DNA
more common in gram negative
independent units in cytosol
2 percent of the genetic information of the cell
multiply independently of the chromosome
plasmids are easily transferred btw. cells
not essential to the life of the cacterial cell
What are the advantages for an organism that have plasmids?
R factor plasmids carry genes for antibiotic resistance
others, allow bacteria to transfer their genetic material to receptive cells in a recombination process.

Placmids that produce Bacteriocids, a group of proteins that inhibit or kill other bacteria.

contain genes that code for toxins that affect human cells and disease processes.
Semiconservative medthod of DNA replication
one strand of the replicate DNA is conserved in the new DNA molecule and one strand is newly synthesized
origin of replication
A fixed point where DNA starts off
Replication fork
point at which the double helix is unwound and new polynucleotide strands are synthesized.
DNA polymerase
an exzyme that synthesizes a new DNA strand from a DNA template.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that binds together short DNA fragments
Okazaki fragments
segments of DNA resulting from discontinuous DNA replication.
rolling circle mechanism
type of DNA replication that takes place in some viruses and in bacteia undergoing a tpe of recombination called conjugation.
Protein synthesis
amino acids are precisely bound together in a sequence determined by the hereditary informaton, the genes, inside the cell
What are the compounds resulting frm protein synthesis used for?
cellular enxymes, structural components, toxins
What does protein synthesis require?
DNA of the chromosome, but also ribonucleic acid
genetic information first is expressed as RNA
copies genetic information into RNA
amino acids are sequence to from protein, reflects the genetic information in the DNA.
Central Dogma
identifies the flow of genetic information
DNA -(transctiption)-> RNA -(translation)-> protein
RNA polymerase:
an enzyme that synthesizes an RNA polynucleotide form the DNA template with in a gene
Name the base pairs of a DNA strand?
Guanine pair with cytosie
Thymine pair with adenine
Name the 3 types of RNA that result from transcription
carries the message as to whet protein will be synthesized
the messages are encoded in a series of three-base codes or codons
framework of the ribosomes
smallets, cloverleaf shape, one point haive three nitrogenous bases (triplet) that function as an anticodon
a sequence that complementary binds to an mRNA codon.
porcess of making the protein Operons