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50 Cards in this Set

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Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions going on in a cell or microorganisms
Reduced
The condition of a molecule to which electrons (hydrogens) have been added
Oxidized
The condition of a molecule from which electrons (hydrogens) have been removed.
Polymer
A relatively large molecule composed of repeating subunit molecules (monomers).
Periplasmic space
The region between the cytoplamsic membrane and the outer membrane where many catabolic reactions occur in gram-negative bacteria.
Adenosine triphosphate
A high-energy molecule that is the "energy currency" for all cells.
Glycolysis
A series of reactions involving the catabolism of glucose, resulting in the production of pyruvic acid.
Phosphorylation
The addition of phosphorus to a molecule. This process is usually accolpanied by a transfer of a relatively large amount of energy.
Fermentation
The conversion of pyruvic acid into such products as alcohol and organic acids.
Krebs cycle
A series of reactions where pyruvic acid is completely oxidized and hydrogen is transferred to an appropriate carrier molecule, such NAD
Nucleotide
A nitrogenous compound found in DNA, RNA, and ATP as well as a variety of coenzymes (NAD).
Electron transport system
A series of steps that oxidize NADH and FADH2 by transferring a hydrogen atom from them to an oxygen atom.
Electron acceptor
An atom or molecule (such as oxygen) that is relatively easily reduced by accepting electrons and protons
Cytochrome
An electron carrier in the electron transport system
Proton motive force
The state of a membrane resulting from the transport of protons by the action of an electron transport system.
Enzyme
A catalyst that reduces the energy needed to start a chemical reaction and may increase the rate of the reaction without being used up in the reaction
Complementary pairing
A structural relationship between nucleotide bases that allows adenine to bond with thymine and guanine to bond to cytosine
Replication
The process by which a cell produces an exact replica of its chromosome
Template
A DNA molecule or sequence used as the pattern for making a new nucleotide polymer during replication or transcription
Genetic Code
The 3 base sequences (condons) in the mRNA that specify a specific amino acid
Protein synthesis
The process of transcription and translation by which the information on the DNA is made into proteins
Transcription
RNA synthesis; the process by which information encoded on the DNA is copied onto an RNA molecule
Condone
3 sequencial mRNA bases that match a 3-base sequence in the DNA code designating a specific amino acid in a protein.
Promoter
The sequence of bases on the DNA template that signals the start point for transcription.
Terminator
A sequence of bases on the DNA template that signals the end of transcription
Initiation complex
An arrangement of the 30S ribosome subunit, initiator tRNA, and mRNA in a configuration such that the 50S ribosome can attach, making the synthesis of protein possible
Genotype
The total genetic information in the cell. Normally only selected parts of the genotype are used at any one time. Thus, cells may have much greater genetic capability than is observable at any given time
Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an organism.
Mutation
Any change in the normal DNA base sequence
Point mutation
A mutation where one base has been substituted by another.
Mutagen
A physical or chemical agent that increases the rate of mutation
Plasmid
Circular, extrachromosomal DNA that can be transferred between cells. Can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA and provide genetic information that will be expressed in addition to that of the chromosome.
Bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacterial cells; also called phage
Prophage
The phage DNA integrated into the bacterial chromosome
Lytic cycle
The series of steps by which a phage replicates and bursts (lyses) the host cell.
Lytic cycle
The series of steps by which a phage replicates and bursts (lyses) the host cell.
Temperate
Referring to a bacteriopage that does not cause immediate lysis of the infected bacterial cell.
Lysogenic
The ability of a bacteriophageto integrate its DNA into the caterial chromosome. Under these condtions the cell does not produce new bacterial viruses, but may carry out functions under direction of the viruses DNA.
Mutant
A cell or organism containing a mutation.
Host range
The kinds of hosts that can be infected by a specific microorganism. Is determined by receptors on both the host cells and the microorganism. A parasite with a broad host range can infect many kinds of cells.
Gene pool
The total genetic information present in a population at a specific time
T lymphocytes
A type of white blood cell involved in an acquired immune response.
Nutrients
Ingredients used by a living organism to facilitate growth, includng carbon and energy sources as well as essential vitamins or minerals.
Heterotroph
An organism that requires organic compunds as a source of carbon
Autotroph
An organism that obtains its carbon from CO2 and energy from light or inorganic compounds
Inorganic
A material lacking carbon, such as, compounds consisting of sulfer, nitrogen, or phosphorus.
Fastidious
Requiring special nutrient supplementation in order to grow
Pure culture
A culture containing only a single species of microorganism
Inoculation
A process whereby microorganisms are placed into or on culture media.
Generation time
The length of time for a population to double in #; for bacteria, generation time is usually measured in minutes.