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63 Cards in this Set

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What microscope gives a 3D view?
Phase Contrast
How is a Florescent microscope used?
Fluorochromes are excited by ultraviolet light, gives off visable light. Finds TB in sputum.
Define bacillus.
Give an example
Rod shaped bacteria
Salmonella thyphi
anthracis
diphtheria
Streptobacilli
chains of bacillus
Give an example of Cocci
Berry
Diplococci
Gonorrhea
Neisseia gonorrhoeae
N. meningitidis
Streptoccus
Streptococcus pyogenes
S. mutans S. lactis (produce yogert)
Sacrina
bundle
micococcus luteus
staphylococcus
grape like cluster
staphylococcus aureus
What are the three types of spiral
Vibrios - curved rods (commas)Vibrio cholerae
Spirilla - helical shape with a thick, rigid cell wall and flagella that assist movement
Spirothetes - thin, flexible cell wall but no flagella, Treponema Pallidum
Fagella
provide motility
monotrichous - single
lophotrichous - group at one end
amphitrichous - single group at both ends
peritrichous - many locations
Chemotaxis
movement toward an attractant
Pili
numerous short, thin hair like fibers
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
gram negative bacteria
attach the bacterial cell to specific surfaces
uses adhesins
enhave ability to colinize and cause disease
Conjugation pilli (fimbriae)
transfer of genetic material btw. cells
Glycocalyx
Gram (-) and (+) rods and cocci secrete can adhering layer of polysacharides and small protiens
sime layer
Thick and tightly bound layer of glycocalyx
dextran
A slime layer usually contains a mass of tangled fibers of a polysaccharied
Peptidoglycan
(murein) alternating units of two aminocontaining sugars
NAG and NAM
Gram positive bacteria
cell wall contains a thick layer peptidoglycan (crystal violet)
S.pyogenes
Penicillin has little effect of thick walls
Lysozyme can destroy cell
Lysome
an enzyme found in human tears and saliva.
This attacks the linkages btw. carohydrates in the peptidoglycan layer of gram (+) bacteria.
Gram (-) bacteria
Thin wall of peptidoglycan
No teichoic acid
Losses crystal violet stain during Gram staining
Has an outer membrane
LPS - consists of Lipid A, an Endotoxin, causing fever and circulatory collapse when it is released form the bacterial cell into the bloodstream of GI tract of
ex. salmonella and e. coli
O-polysaccharide
used to id variants of a speices of
G(-)bacteria
Porins
On G(-) bacteria
form pores
Periplasmic region
In G(-) bacteria
btw. outer membrane and cell membrane
Filled with periplasm, a gel like material containing digestive enxymes and transport proteins
What is the Resistance of G(-) bacteria
Resistace against
Penicillian
antimicrobial agens
dyes
disinfectants and lysoxyme
Cell membrane
plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells
Fluid mosaic model
Fluid movement in membrane
Cytoplasm
foundation substance of a cell and the center of its growth and metabioism
Ribosomes
granular appearance
built from RNA and protein and composted of a small and large subunit.
Streotomycin and tetracycline
prevent bacterial ribosmomes from carrying out protien synthesis
Inclusion bodies
cytoplasmic structures
store nutrients or the monomers for bacterial structures
ID characters for disease causing bacteria
Metachromatic granules
An inclusion body known as volutin
Found in Diphtheria bacilli
stained deepley with methylene blue
Magnetosome
Type of inclusion body that helps bacteria orient themselves to the environment by aligning themselves with magnetic field
Nucleoid
chromosome region in a bacteiral cell
does not contain a covering or membrane
DNA aggregates and ribosomes are absent
Plasmids
nonessential molecules of DNA apart from nucleoid
exist as closed loo[s containing 5-100genes
significant in disease processes
create toxic substance or drug resistance
R plasmids
R for resistance
transferred btw. cells during recombination processes and multiply independently from cell reproduction
Endospores
Vegitative go into dormancy
Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus and clostridium
form when env. in harsh
most resistant living thing on earth
Contents of endospores
Long lasting b.c of dipicolinic acid, stabilize thier proteins and DNA
water over 80 degress for over 2 hry
70 percent ethyl alcohol for 20 years
Diseases caused by endospores
bacillus sphaericus
Bacillus anthracis
(Clostridium) Botulism (no 02), gas gangrene, tetanus (need 02)
How do bacteria reproduce?
Binary fission
Generation time
or doubling time is an interval of time btw. succesive bainary fissions of a cell or population of cells
Which bacteria has an generation time of 30min
staphylococcus
Escherichia Ecoli generatin time
20 min
Lag phase
no cell division occours
bacteria are adapting to their new environment
lenght depends on the metabolic activity in the remaining bacteria
they must grow in size store nutrients and synthesize enxymes in preparation for binary fission
Log phase
undergoing binary fission
genearation time is dependent on the species and envioronmental condisitons graph rises in a gtraight line
stationary phase
reproductive and death rates equalize
populaiton enters a plateau
What organism produces endospores
bacillus or clostridium
exponential death phase
number of dying cells exceed the number of new cells formed
psychrophiles
ocean depths
0-15 degress
these bacteria contain unstaturated fatty acids in ther phospholipids that allow the cell membrane to reemain fluid
contian enxymes that are function onlhy at low temp
Die in humans
thermophiles
40-70 degress
compost heaps and hot sprint, diary products b/c surve pasteurizaiton temp
no threat to human b/c do not grow well at cooler temp of the body
contain heat stable protiens and enzymes
hyperthermo philes
80-113 degress
hot water vents
Mesophiles
20 - 45 degress
human pathogens
refrigerated foods
slow growth due to toxin (campylobacter)
aerobes
need O2 as a final electron acceptor to make cellular energy
microaerophiles
treponema pallidium - syphilis
live in low O2
anaerobes
do not or cannot use O2
aerotolerant
insensitive to O2 and grow with or without O2 present
Obligate anaerobes
are killed if O2 is present
ex. thiomargarita namibiensis
reminant archea
petroleum and swamp gass is a product
campylobacteriosis
from raw meet
thioglycolate broth
test an organism oxygen requirement
GasPak
faculative
neither aerobic nor anarobic
staphylocci
streptococci
bacillus
intestinal rods, e.coli
Capnophilic
low in o2 but rich in CO2
Acidophiles
lactobacillus, streptoccoccus produce the acid that converts milk to butter milk and cream to sour cream
no threat to good health
What are the aceptic tecniques?
1)Use bonami soap to clean the slide
2)use disinfectant liqid before and after using the lap table
3)flame loop and needle before and after use