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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Route of transmission
Direct contact
from source to susceptible host (droplet, animal/person to person, viral)
Latent disease
disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
rabies, Lyme disease
-some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans
Nosocomial infections
hospital acquired
-5-5% of all hospital patients acqyire these infections
AIDs, gonnorhea
-carriers may have inapparent infections or latent diseases
Route of transmission
animals or insects carrying pathogens (ex. insects= mechanical parts or biological living inside)
Normal flora
microorganisms which normally inhabit the healthy human body or other natural environments
Route of Transmission
droplet nuclei or dust particles = distribution of 1mL + reservoir to host (TB, measles)
Route of transmission
common vehicle
common inanimate reservoir to individual (ex. blood, food, salmonella)
Route of Transmission
indirect contact
from source to fomite (inaminate object: tissue, toys, etc.)
subclinical disease
no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
Local infection
pathogens limited to a small area of the body
Transient Flora
present for short periods but not disease-causing
Focal infection
systemic infection that began as a local infection
secondary infection
opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
Things that put you at risk for Nosocomial infections
invasive procedures
tissue transplants
extensive burns
malfunction of spleen
bone marrow failure
surgical patients (postop)
Nosocomial infections result from
microbes in hospital
compromised state of host
chain of transmission
-direct contact
-indirect contact
direct contact
person to person
indirect contact
fomites and hospital vents
how to control (universal precautions
aseptic technique
hand washing
handling equipment carefully
isolation rooms
barriers (gloves, mask)
proper disinfection
proper sterilization
susceptble host
-comprimised by disease, therapy, burns
-broken skin, mucous membrane (catheter, injection)
-suppressed immune system (cancer, age)
-impaired cell activity (cancer, malnutrition)
patterns of disease

predisposing factors
makes body more susceptible to disease
1. sex-males (meningitis, pneumonia) females (UTIs)
2. genetics (diabetes)
3. Climate (RTI)
4. Nutrition
5. Fatigue
6. Age (young/old)
7. personal habits occupation (accident)
8. pre-existing illness (diabetes, renal)
9. chemotherapy, antibiotics, radiation
10. emotional disturbances
make the body more susceptible to disease
short urethra in females
inherited traits
climate and weather