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58 Cards in this Set

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Steps of the Gram Stain
1. Crystal Violet Stain
2. Iodine
3. Wash with ETOH - removes DYE from Gram -
4. Safranin Counter Stain
Gram stain Which is red and which is blue
Gram + = Blue
Gram - = Red
First Layer outside PM
Peptidoglycan Cell Wall
Structure of PG
Disac Back Bone with aa side chain
PG Crosslinking Enzyme
transpeptidase
Transpeptidase location
inner PM
Inhibitor of Transpeptidase
Penicillin
Penicillin Binding Protein
Transpeptidase
Whose got more PG and cell wall
Gram Positive
_
+
-
Who Has Teichoic Acid
Gram Positive
Teichoic Acid
Major PolySac of Gram +.
Impt for Serological Determinations. Antigenic Marker
Immune Response to Teichoic Acid
IL1 + TNF
Outermost Layer of Gram +
capsule - if present
Unique to Bacteria PM
NO CHOLESTEROL - except Mycoplasma
4 Layers of Gram - Wall
PM
Periplasmic Space
PG Layer
Outer Membrane
Periplasmic Space properties
Hydrolytic enzymes, including B-Lactamases
Murein Lipoprotein
originates in PG layer and goes to OUter Membrane
LPS - where is it found
FOund in outer membrane of Gram -
LPS Composition
Outer Carb - O- Anigen
Core PolySac
LIPID A - interior = Endotoxin
Porin
Found in Outer Membrane
Capsule - function
Protects from Phagocytosis
Is + or - more resistant to environmental Toxins
Gram Neg - outer Membrane is protective, Thick PG layer is not
Capsule Composition
PolySac - excpet Bacillus Anthracis - D Glu
Four Morph Forms of Bacteria
Cocci
Bacilli = rods
Spiral Forms
Pleomorophic
Name 6 Gram +
Staph, Strep
Bacillus, Clostridium
Corynebacterium, Listeria
One Gram + with Endotoxin
Listeria
Coccie +
Staph - clusters
Strep - strips
Spores forming + Bacilli
Bacillus, Clostridium
Gram - Diplococcie
Neisseria
Spiral Shaped
Spirochetes (Treponema --> Syphilis)
Peptidoglycan - Function
Gives rigid support, protects against osmotic pressure
Peptidoglycan
Sugar backbone with crosslinked peptide side chains.
MycoBacteria - stain
Acid Fast
Mycobacteria - cell wall
Mycolic Acid
Hi Lipid Content
Spirochetes - microsopic properties
Too small to be seen by LM
Use Darkfield
Mycoplasma - what gram is it
Neither Gram - or +
Only have PM
Antibiotic Resistance gene location
Plasmid
Ribosomes
50S and 30S
Corresponds to The Sed Rate
3 Modes of Detoxing O2
Catalase
Peroxidase
SuperOxide Dismutase
Catalse
H2O2 --> H20
Peroxidase
breaks down peroxide
SOD
O2 radicals --> Peroxide
Obligate Intracellular Parasites
Chlamidia
Ricketsia
Silver Stain
Legionella
Obligate Aerobes - features
Use Krebs cycle and TCA
Obligate Aerobes - Gram Pos
Nocardia*
Bacillus Cereus
Obligate Aerobes - Gram Neg
Pseudomonas*
Legionella
Neisseria
Bordetella
Obligate Aerobes - misc
Mycobacterium TB
Prediletion for Apices of Lungs
Obligate Aerobes - Acronym
Nagy Pests Must Breate

Nocardia, - sort of acid fast
Pseudomonas, - Intracellular
Mycobacter, - AF and IC
Bacillus Cereus - Serious about air
Facultatie Anaeroebs - what do they do
Theyre Aerobic Excpet when theres on O2
Facultatie Anaerobes - Gram +
Staph, Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacter, Listeria, Actinomyces
What are most Gram Neg
Facultative Anaerobes
Micraerophilic Definiton
Anaeroibic but have some antiO2 mechanisms - (no Catalase)
Microaerophilic Bugs
Strep
Spirochetes
Campylobacter
Obligate Anaerobes
Clostridium
Bacteroides
Obligate Anaerobes - features
Foul Smelling (SCFA)
Produce Gas
Aminoglycasides ineffective (require O2 to enter Bug)
Intracellular Bugs List - Obligate
Ricketsia, Chlamydia (Really Cold)
Intracellular Bugs List - Facultatie
Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacter, Listeria, Fracisella, Legionella, Yesinia