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12 Cards in this Set

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peptidoglycan
Gram +(fat layer) and - (skinny layer)
-gives rigid suppors, protects against osmotic pressure
-sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains
Gram pos cell wall
teichoic acid (induces TNF and IL-1)
pilus and flagellum common to both
Gram - outer membrane
endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide/LPS) - a major surface antigen
- Lipid A induces TNF and IL-1
Periplasm
Gram - bac only
-space between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane
-contains hydrolytic enzymes, incl B-lactamases
Capsule
protects against phagocytosis
-polysaccharide - except anthrax (polypeptide w/ D-glutamate)
Pilus/Fimbria
adherence of bac to cell surface
conjugation
glycoprotein
+ and - both
Spore
resistance to heat, dehydration, chemicals
-keratin-like coat, dipicolinic acid
plasmid
genes for
1. antibiotic resistance
2. toxins
3. enzymes
-has dna
glycocalyx
adherence to surfaces, esp foreign (indwelling catheters)
-polysaccharide
Endotoxin
Gram- bac
1. genes located on chromosome (not plasmid)
2. low toxicity (req a high dose)
3. poorly antigenic
4. induces fever, shock (IL-1, TNF)
5. no toxoids formed, no vaccines available
6. HEAT STABLE
7. typically: meningococcemia, sepsis (gram- rods)
Exotoxin
Certain species gram + and -
1. secreted
2. polypeptide
3. genes on plasmid or bacteriophage
4. very toxic (fatal in low doses)
5. Antigenic: induces high-titer antibodies called antitoxins
6. toxoids used as vaccines
7. mostly heat labile, easily destroyed (except staphylococcal enterotoxin)
8. Tetanus, botulism, diphtheria
Diphtheria, Botulism, strep. pyogenes erythrogenic exotoxins all have their genes carried on what?
lysogenic phages