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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a antimicrobial drug?
-A chemical substance that destroys pathogens with minimal damage to the host.
-may be synthetic or natural
what is a superinfection?
-results from a resistance developing
-results from disruption of normal microbiota
what are the target sites of antimicrobial drugs?
cell wall, inhibition of protein synthesis, damage to plasma membrane
cell wall
results in bacteriocidal
how does antimicrobial resistance occur?
R-plasmid, cellular anatomy, & overuse/misuse of antibiotics
( overprescribed by doctors)
what is a boil?
tender, red lumps that swell. they may break open and ooze pus or blood. these are treatable.

results from staph aureus
what is an impetigo?
blisters w/fluid in them, which pop and get a yellow crust, and they can spread by scratching. children get it on their face

results from staph. aureus
what is scalded skin syndrome?
large sheets of skin may peel away after red patches appear.
toxins are produced from antibiotic killing off bacteria, results in very itchy skin.
what is the treatment for scalded skin syndrome?
flucloxacillin, 5-7 days
what is streptococcus?
it is a gram positive cocci chain, hemolytic enzyme
what is the most common strep?
streptococcus pyogenes (strep throat)
5-15% individuals act as carriers
what is the treatment for streptococcus pyogenes? (strep throat)
penicillin, caused by indirect/direct transmission

prevention: handwashing,etc.
what is necrotizing fascilitis (NF)?
-a flesh eating bacterium, destroys layers of tissue that surround the muscles, happens in 12-24 hrs
what are the symptoms of necrotizing fascilitis?
high fever, red, painful swelling that feels hot and spreads rapidly, skin may become purplish and die from tissue destruction.
what are the risk factors of streptococcus?
immunocompromised, contact w/person showing disease
what is the treatment for streptococcus?
surgery removes the infected tissueand IV antibiotics, there is not vaccine available.
how do you prevent streptococcus?
take proper care of minor wounds and cuts
what is pseudomonas?
gram negative bacillus, motile, loves to live in soil, very resistant, contains endo and exotoxins.
what is pseudomona aeruginosa?
opportunistic pathogen of humans, caused primarily a nosocomial pathogen. almost never infects uncompromised tissue, but there is hardly any tissue that it cant infect.
pseudomonas in lab
-reintroduced by fruits, plants and veggies. transferred by visitors and patients
where is pseudomonas most serious?
serious problem in patients hospitalized with cancer, cystic fibrosis, and burns -50% fatality
what is bacteremia?
for immunocompromised patients only- bacteria has entered the bloodstream and is being carried throughout the body
what is the treatment for systemic infections by pseudomonas?
no vaccines are currently available
what is human papillomavirus? (HPV)?
non-enveloped double stranded DNA, results in warts, 100 different types exist. 30 types are spread through sexual contact
how is HPV caused?
infection in the top layer of skin or mucous membranes, direct/indirect transmission, and isn't immediatel detected by immune system.
how do you treat HPV?
salicylic acid, liquid nitrogen duct tape!
susceptible to changes in temp and decreased oxygen.
enveloped (greater survivability outside host)
what are the 2 types of herpes?
simplex type 1 &2
what are the symptoms of herpes?
blisters form and then burst causing ulcers, this may cause 2-4 weeks to heal