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5 Cards in this Set

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Deep wounds with lots of dead tissue create an anerobic environment that offers an excellent home for Clostridium perfringens. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What are the 2 classes of infections regarding Cl. perfringens?
1. Cellulitis/wound infection. necrotic skin is exposed to Cl. perfringens which grows and damages local tissue. Pockets of gas are called crepitus.
2. Clostridial myonecrosis. Cl. perfringens inoculated with trauma into muscle secretes exotoxins that destroy adjacent muscle. These anaerobic bacteria release other enzymes that ferment carbohydrates resulting in gas formation. This can be fatal, unless quickly treated. Hyperbaric O2 with antibiotics(penicillin) and removal of necrotic tissue can be of great benefit.
What is Clostridium difficile?
It is the pathogen responsible for antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis which can follow the use of broad spectrum antibiotics(such as ampicillin, clindamycin and cephalosporins).
Are toxins ever involved with Cl. perfringens?
Yes. Once it grows in abundance, it then releases its exotoxins. Toxin A causes diarrhea, and toxin B is cytotoxic to the colonic cells.
Is there any treatment for Cl. difficile?
Exam by colonoscopy can reveal red inflamed mucosa and areas of white exudate called pseudomembranes. necrosis of the mucosal surface occurs underneath the pseudomembranes.
Treatment includes discontinuing the initial antibiotic and giving metronidazole or vancomycin by mouth. Both kill Cl. difficile and are not absorbed into the bloodstream.