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8 Cards in this Set

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What are Clostridia?
They are G+ spore forming rods. They are anerobic. They harm their human hosts by secreting extremely powerful exotoxins and enzymes.
How does C. botulinum exert its toxic effect?
C. botulinum produces an extremely lethal neurotoxin that causes a rapidly fatal food poisoning. The toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine(AcH) from presynaptic nerve terminals in the ANS and motor end plates causing flaccid muscle paralysis.
How are patients treated who directly consume the neurotoxin?
They must be treated with an antitoxin which can neutralize only the unbound free neurotoxin in the bloodstream. Intubation and ventilatory support is critical until the respiratory muscles resume activity.
What is "floppy baby syndrome"?
Infant botulism. They ingest the spores which colonize in the intestine. They have muscle weakness and dysphagia.
What is Clost tetani?
It follows a puncture wound, but may follow skin trauma by any object with spores. The toxin occurs at the end plate and transported to the CNS. Its exotoxin is called tetanospasmin.The toxin acts on the inhibitory Renshaw cell interneurons, preventing the release of GABA and glycine, which are inhibitory transmitters. This inhibition of inhibitory interneurons allows motor neurons to send a high frequency of impulses to muscle cells, which results in a sustained tetanic contraction.
All children in the US are immunized with a series of DPT(diptheria-pertussis-tetanus) shots at ages 2, 4, 6 and 18 months, followed by a booster before entry into school(4-6yrs). TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Protection lasts about 10 years.
How are patients , who have never been immunized, and have had potential exposure treated?
They need not only a booster, but they should also receive preformed antibodies to the tetanus toxin called "human tetanus immune globulin".
How are patients treated who already have tetanus?
The goal is to remove the toxin and the toxin producing bacteria. This is usually accompanied with 5 steps of therapy;
1. Neutralize toxin with human tetanus immune globulins.
2.Give an immunization booster.
3. Clean the wound thoroughly.
4. Antibiotics(penicillin) may help to clear the remaining toxin producing bacteria.
5. Intensive supportive therapy. Muscle relaxants and possible ventilator.