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117 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Skin flora are ___________ pathogens.
Opportunistic
The three groups of skin flora are:
1. Diptheroids
2. Staphylococci
3. Yeasts
Diptheroids are named for their resemblance of _____________ ____________.
Corynebacterium diptheriae
Diptheroids are Gram ________ bacteria with varied shape and ______ virulence.
Positive
Low
Diptheroids are _____-_______ producers (like C. diphtheriae).
Non-toxin
Diptheroids are responsible for ________ _________. The smell is caused by the bacterial break-down of sweat.
Body Odor
A common diptheroid is _____________ _________, the cause of acne.
Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococci is a Gram ________, salt-__________ organism.
Positive
Tolerant
Staphylococci is relatively ____________, but can cause serious disease in the immunocompromised.
Avirulent
The principal species of Staphylococci is Staph ________.
Epidermidis
Staphylococci functions on the skin to prevent ____________ of __________ flora.
Colonization
Pathogenic
Staphylococci maintains balance among microbial ________ __________.
Skin flora
Fungi (_________) are tiny __________ yeast universally found on normal skin, from late childhood thru-out life.
Yeasts
Lipophilic
Fungi shapes vary amoung strains, usually ________ or _________; however, can be short rods.
Round
Oval
Fungi found on skin are generally ___________, can cause skin conditions such as rash or _____________.
Harmless
Dandruff
_____________ is infection of the hair follicle.
Folliculitis
The infection of the hair follicle causes a ______ ________ or pimple, this can spread from follicle to adjacent ___________.
Tissue
Red bump
A lesion produced by an infected follicle is called a ___________.
Furuncle
Most infected hair follicles are caused by __________ __________.
Staph aureus
SSSS is a ________-__________ disease that occurs primarily in infants. SSSS stands for...
Toxin-mediated
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Symptoms of SSSS are:
-Apparent ________ of skin
-Begins as a generalized _________.
-Other symptoms include malaise, _________, fever.
-Nose, mouth and _________ may be painful before other indicators.
Burning
Redness
Irritability
Genitalia
Within ___ hours of SSSS, skin becomes red and wrinkled and large _______-_________ blisters appear. Skin feels like ____________.
48
Fluid-filled
Sandpaper
The causative agent is the bacteria _______ __________, the disease is caused by _________ produced by the bacteria. These toxins are called ___________.
Staph aureus
Toxins
Exfoliatins
Exfoliatins destroy integral layers of the outer _________. They are coded by _________ or on the bacterial _____________.
Epidermis
Plasmid
Chromosome
SSSS toxin is released at the _______ of __________ and is absorbed and carried by the bloodstream to larger areas of the skin.
Site of infection
SSSS toxin causes splits in the epidermis just below the dead ____________ outer layer of epidermis.
Keratinized
Outer layer of skin is lost, causing body fluid loss and increased ____________ to secondary infections.
Susceptibility
Mortality rates of SSSS can reach _____%. Usually die from water loss.
40
____% of Staph aureus strains produce ___________, meaning only that many have the toxin genes.
5
Exfoliatins
Disease can appear in any age group, but mostly in:
Transmission is usually _____-___-_______. Disease is usually ___________, however small epidemics can occur in nuseries.
Infants, the elderly and immunocompromised.
Person-to-person
Isolated
Only preventative measure of SSSS is ________ __________. Treatment includes bactericidal ____________ as well as removal of _______ ________.
Patient isolation
Antibiotics
Dead skin
The antibiotics used to treat SSSS are _____________ such as penicillinase-___________ penicillin.
Antistaphylococcals
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin
Streptococcal impetigo is a ____________ infection characterized by _______ production.
Pyoderma
Pus
Pyodermas can result from insect bites, _______ and scrapes. Such injuries can be so slight that they miss detection.
Burns
___________ is most common type of pyoderma.
Impetigo
The causative agent of Strep Impetigo is _____________ __________, although S. aureus is also a causative agent.
Streptococcus pyogenes
S. ___________ is a Gram positive, beta __________ cocci. These are often referred to as Group ____ due to presence of group A cell wall _____________.
Pyogenes
Gram positive
Beta-hemolytic cocci
Group A
Polysaccharides
Infection of Strep Impetigo is established through scratches and minor injuries which allows bacteria into _________ ___________ of skin.
Deeper layers
The two destructive enzymes that are produced by Strep Impetigo are ___________ and ____________. The bacteria surface components interfere with ______________.
Proteases=degrade skin proteins
Nucleases=degrade nucleic acids
Phagocytosis
Strep Impetigo is contagious through ___________.
Contact
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a representative of a group of _____________ diseases.
Rickettsial
The zoonotic agent of RMSF is _________.
Ticks
___________ were considered viruses but ended up being a ____________.
Ricketts
Bacteria
Symptoms of RMSF include:
-Start with initial rash of ______ ________ _______.
-Appears 1st on ________, writsts, ankles and soles.
-Spots become raised bumps and are ____________.
-Shock or death can occur when certain body systems are involved (like the ________ or ____________)
Faint pink spots
Palms
Hemorrhagic
Heart and kidney
The causative agent of RMSF is _____________ ___________. It is an obligate, ____________ bacterium. They are non-mobile _________ a cell, and mobile _________ a cell.
Rickettsia rickettsii
Intracellular
Non-mobile outside
Mobile inside
The causative agent of RMSF is an obligate intracellular bacterium meaning:
It requires a host organism to live
Rickettsia rickettsii is a Gram __________, non-motile, cocco__________. They are very small and often hard to see in Gram stains.
Negative
Coccobacillus
RMSf is aquired when a tick infected with R. ricketsii. Bacteria are released into the blood, they enter cells through _____________.
Endocytosis
After endocytosis, cell escapes ___________ ___________. Bacterial endotoxin released in bloodstream can cause _________ ______________ ___________.
Protective phagosome
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
RMSF is a ___________ disease occuring in the US, Canada and __________. Highest incidence in US is in south ___________ and south-central US.
Zoonotic
Mexico
Atlantic
The main vectors include wood tick (__________ __________) and the dog tick (____________ ____________). These tick vectors remain infected for life.
Wood tick = Dermacentor andersoni
Dog tick = Dermacentor variabilis
There is no vaccine for RMSF. Prevention should be directed towards:
Avoiding tick-infested areas, using tick repellants containing DEET and carefully inspecting body.
Antibiotics are highly effective in treatment if...
The antibiotics most commonly used are...
Without treatment, overall mortality reaches ~____% (with early treatment, ____%)
Given early
Doxycycline and chloramphenicol
20%, 5%
Chickenpox is the popular name for __________. Incidence has declined due to vaccine. Produces a __________ infection that becomes reactive after recovery of initial illness (___________)
Varicella
Latent
Shingles
Symptoms:
Most cases are mild and recovery is ____________. Symptoms are more severe in older children and adults, _____% of adults develope pneumonia.
Uneventful
20%
Rash is the ____________ of chickenpox.
Diagnostic
Rash steps are:
1. Red spots called _________
2. Small bumps called _________
3. Small blisters called ___________
4. pus-filled blisters called __________.
1. Macules
2. Papuales
3. Vesicles
4. Pustules
Varicella is a major threat to newborns, may lead to __________ ___________ syndrome.
Congenital varicella
The word sequella means:
The manifestations of the disease.
Sequella of chickenpox infection include shingles or ________ _________ caused by reactivation of dormant virus and characterized by rash around waist.
Herpes zoster
Sequella of a chickenpox infection also include _______ Syndrome.
Reye's
Reye's is evident by ___________ and coma. Mostly seen in children ____-____. Characterized by __________ and _________ damage. The mortality rate is ~____%.
Vomiting
5-15
liver and brain
30%
Evidence suggests that _________ therapy increases risk of Reye's.
Aspirin
All herpes viruses are more serious in adults than children, indicating more _____________.
Immunopathology
The casative agent of chickenpox is the ___________-_________ virus which is a member of the _________ family. It is a medium sized ___________ virus with a very large, double stranded _____ genome.
Varicella-zoster
Herpes
Enveloped
DNA
Chickenpox virus enters through __________ route, meaning it's very good at getting to new hosts.
Respiratory
Chickenpox infects living layers of skin and moves to adjacent cells and skin _________ appear.
Lesions
Infected cells swell and ________ releasing virus to enter _________ nerves.
Lyse
Sensory
Occurance of shingles correlates with decline in _____ ____________ (Type I) ___________. Latent virus within nerve cell replicates and is carried to the skin (_____________)
Cell mediated (Type I) immunity
Recrudescence
Chickenpox is transmitted by ____________ secretions and skin lesions. Incidences increase in winter and ________.
Repiratory
Spring
Chickenpox incubation period is ~2 _______. Infective from 1-2 days before rash until blister crusts over.
Weeks
Prevention of chickenpox is geared at _____________. The _____________ vaccine was licensed in ________.
Vaccination
Attenuated
1995
_____________ patients should avoid the vaccine, but can be partially protected by passive immunity via injection of _________ _________ _________ (ZIG).
Immunocompromised
Zoster immune globulin
Measles, hard measles and red measles are all common names for __________.
Rubeola
There has been a dramatic reduciton in measles cases within the ______ century due to vaccination.
20th
Worldwide there are _____-____,000 cases of measles per year.
350-400
Symptoms:
1. fever, runny nose, cough and _____ ________ eyes.
2. Fine rash appears first on __________, then spreads.
3. Symptoms dissapear within 1 _______.
Red, weepy eyes
Forehead
Week
Many cases are complicated with __________ infections. The most common of these are __________ and ear infections. The least common of these are ____________ and SSPE (_________ ___________ _______________)which is a brain disorder.
-Secondary Infections
-Pneumonia
-Encephalitis
-Subacute sclerosing panencehalitis (SSPE)
The causative agent of measles is the _________ virus. This virus is ___________, medium sized and ___________.
Rubeola
Pleomorphic
Enveloped
The envelope of the Rubeola virus contains _______ proteins. One for ________ attachement to host, one for __________ with host membrane.
Spike
Viral
Fusion
The Rubeola virus has a _________-__________ RNA genome and belongs to the __________ family.
Single-stranded
Paramyxovirus (which is close to the flu virus)
Infection of measles is via ___________ route. It replicates in the ___________ of the URT. Then spreads to the ________ _________ where it gets to all parts of the body.
Repiratory
Epithelium
Lymph nodes
An important diagnostic for the disease is the infected __________ ___________. They are covered with __________ spots.
Mucous membranes
Koplik
Humans are the only natural host, so this disease could be ___________.
Eradicated
Before routine immunization, over ____% of the population infected so rare events (like death) were happening a lot.
99%
Vaccine resulted in the decline of _________ cases and measles are no longer _________ in the US.
Annual
Endemic
Prevention of measles is directed towards ____________. The vaccine is usually given with mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine (MMRV).
Vaccination
The MMRV contains all live, ___________ viruses acting as vaccines.
Attenuated
True or False:
There is an antiviral treatment for measles.
False
Since adults can recover easily, the vaccination program is mostly to protect ___________.
Infants
German measles and three-day measles are common names for ___________.
Rubella
Rubella is typically mild, often un___________ and difficult to diagnose. However, there is a significant infection in __________ women.
Unrecognized
Pregnant
Rubella in a pregnant woman can cause ____________ ___________ ___________ in the fetus which leads to deafness, ___________ and heart defects.
Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Heart defects
Rubella enters the body through __________ route. The virus multiplies in the ___________, then enters bloodstream where it causes sustained viremia.
Respiratory
Nasopharynx
Immunity develops against viral antigens of rubella resulting in an _________-_________ complex most likely responsible for rash and joint pain. (because the complex _____________ out)
Antigen-antibody complex
Precipitates
Humans are the only natural host, the disease is _________ contagious (less so than measles).
Highly
_____% of people infected with Rubella fail to develope symptoms. Infectious ____ days before appearance of rash to ____ days after.
40%
7
7
True or False:
If a person fails to develope symptoms of Rubella, then they are never contagious.
False, the virus is still replicating and being shed.
Warts are caused by the __________ virus.
Papillomavirus
Papillomavirus can infect skin through minor ________. This forms small tumors called ___________.
Abrasions
Papillomas (warts)
True or False:
Most warts are cancerous.
False, out of the 50 known species, only 4 are cancerous.
Some sexually transmitted warts are associated with ________ cancer (pap smear is diagnosis).
Cervical
Nearly ____% of warts on the skin dissapear by themselves within ____ years.
50%
2 years
The papillomaviruses belong to the _________ family. They are small and non___________ with a double stranded ______ genome.
Papovirus
Enveloped
DNA
Three common objects that warts can live on are:
1. Towels
2. Shower floors
3. Wrestling mat
The warts virus infects the deeper layers of __________. It reproduces in the nucleus of these cells. These infected cells grow ___________, producing the wart. The incubation period ranges ____-____ months.
Epidermis
Abnormally
2-18
Treatment is acheived by killing all _________ cells by freezing (liquid _________), cauterization or ____________ removal.
Abnormal
Nitrogen
Surgical
Skin diseases caused by fungi are called __________ ____________ __________. These are a group of diseases caused by species of ________.
Superficial Cutaneous Mycoses
Molds
These mycoses invade nails, hair and __________ layers of the skin.
Keratinized
Examples of mycoses:
1. Tinea __________ = mycosis of the scalp
2. Tinea __________ = mycosis of the underarm
3. Tinea __________ = mycosis of the groin (Jock itch)
4. Tinea __________ = mycosis of the foot (Athlete's Foot)
Capitis (scalp)
Axillaris (underarm)
Cruris (groin)
Pedis (foot)
Three genera are responsible for most of these mycosal infections:
1. Epidermophyton
2. Microsporum
3. Trichophyton
Collectively, the three causative agents of the mycosal infections are termed _____________.
Dermatophytes
Normal skin generally resistant to dermatophytes, excessive __________ allows invasion of keratinized layers of tissue.
Moisture
Dermatophytes produce ____________, which allow destruction of __________. They use the _______ _______ from the breakdown keratin for nutrients.
Keratinase
Keratin
Amino acids
Scalp is invaded by through ______ ___________ due to high moisture content. The fungal products defuse to __________ layer and evoke an immune response.
Hair follicle
Dermal
Prevention and treatment includes attention to cleanliness and maintenance of _________ dryness.
Normal
Numerous prescription and ______ medications are available for treatment.
OTC