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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
gene
All of the genetic material in a cell
genome
Molecular study of genomes
genomics
Genes of an organism
genotype
Expression of the genes
phenotype
Occur in the absence of a mutagen
Spontaneous mutations
detects mutant cells because they grow or appear different.
Positive (direct) selection
detects mutant cells because they do not grow.
Negative (indirect) selection
Occurs during reproduction, between generations of cells
vertical gene transfer
Transfer of genes between cells of the same generation
horizontal gene transfer
A small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome
plasmid
Carries genes for sex pili and transfer of the plasmid
conjugative plasmid
Encode enzymes for catabolism of unusual compounds
dissimilation plasmids
encode antibiotic resistance
r factors
Exchange of genes between two DNA molecules
genetic recombination
Study of disease
pathology
Study of the cause of a disease
etiology
Development of disease
pathogenesis
Colonization of the body by pathogens
infection
An abnormal state in which the body is not functionally normally
disease
live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect
Probiotics
used to prove the cause of an infectious disease
Koch's Postulates
A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
sign
A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
symptom
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
syndrome
A disease that is easily spread from one host to another
communicable / contagious
fraction of a population that contracts a disease w/in a specific amount of time
incidence
Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
prevalence
Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
sporadic disease
Disease constantly present in a population
endemic disease
Immunity in most of a population
herd immunity
Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
epidemic disease
worldwide epidemic
pandemic disease
Symptoms develop rapidly
acute disease
disease develops slowly
chronic disease
Disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
latent disease
sx btw acute and chronic
subacute disease
Systemic infection that began as a local infection
focal infection
Bacteria in the blood
bacteremia
Growth of bacteria in the blood
septicemia
Acute infection that causes the initial illness
primary infection
Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
secondary infection
No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
subclinical disease
The ability to cause disease
pathogenicity
The extent of pathogenicity
virulence
Streptococcus mutans
Glycocalyx
Escherichia coli
Fimbriae
Streptococcus pyogenes
M protein
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Opa protein
Treponema pallidum
Tapered end
Digest fibrin clots
kinases
Take iron from host iron-binding proteins
siderophores
Alter surface proteins
antigenic variation
subs which contribute to pathogenicity
toxin
Ability to produce a toxin
Toxigenicity
Presence of toxin the host's blood
Toxemia
Inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
toxoid
Antibodies against a specific toxin
Antitoxin
Cause an intense immune response due to release of cytokines from host cells
superantigens or type i toxins (exotoxins)
lyse host cells
Membrane-disrupting toxins or type II toxins
the use of drugs to treat a disease
chemotherapy
interfere with the growth of microbes w/in a host
antimicrobials
Substance produced by a microbe that, in small amounts, inhibits another microbe
antibiotic
kills harmful microbes w/o damaging the host
selective toxicity
more effective against gram-negatives
2nd, 3rd, and 4th generations of cephalosporins
Antituberculosis
rifamycin
Inhibits DNA gyrase
Urinary tract infections
Cipro
Inhibit folic acid synthesis
sulfonamides
Combined with bacitracin and neomycin in over-the-counter preparation
polymyxin B
Interferes with tRNA attachment
tertacyclines
Changes shape of 30S subunit
aminogylcosides
Inhibits incorporation of mycolic acid
ethambutol
Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
INH
Important "last line" against antibiotic resistant S. aureus
vanco
occurs when the effect of two drugs together is greater than the effect of either alone
Synergism
occurs when the effect of two drugs together is less than the effect of either alone
Antagonism
Broad spectrum antibiotics from plants and animals
antimicrobial peptides
Complementary DNA or peptide nucleic acids that binds to a pathogen's virulence gene(s) and prevents transcription
antisense agents
year, man - penicillin discovery produced by penicillium
1928 - Alexander Fleming