Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/194

Click to flip

194 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lactose formers
1. “CEEK”
2. Citrobacter
3. Enterobacter
4. E.Coli (K1 capsule most important)
5. Klebsiella
Non lactose formers
6. “SHYPS”
7. Shigella
8. Yersinia enterolytica (AKA Pestis)
9. Proteus
10. Salmonella
May lack color
11. “These rascals may microscopically lack color”:
12. Treponema
13. Ricksetta
14. Mycobacterium
15. Mycoplasma
16. Legionella
17. Chlamydia
inc. cAMP
“CAPE”
19. Cholera
20. Anthracis (Poly D glutamate capsule)
21. Pertusis (via Gi)
22. E.coli (LT enterotoxin)
Have Capsules [ie… are Quellung Reaction (+)]
23. “Some killers have pretty nice capsules”
24. Strep. Pneumoniae
25. Klebsiella
26. HiB
27. Pseudamona Aeroginosa
28. Neisseria meningitis
29. Cryptococcus neoformans (only encapsulated fungal pathogen)
Dimorphic Fungi
“Can Also Have Both Shapes”
31. Cocciodes
32. Aspergillus
33. Histoplasma
34. Blastomyces
35. Sprothrix schenkii
Have â Prophage
“OBED”
37. O = Salmonella
38. B = Botulinum
39. E = Erythrogenic strep
40. D = Diptheria
Spore Forming Bacteria
41. Bacilus & Clostridium (have calcium di-picolinate)
IgA Proteases
42. Neisseria,
Haemophilus,
S. pneumoniae
Widal Test
43. Salmonella (Salmonella begins in the ileocecal region) agglutination indicates Abs to O, H, Vi Salmunella Ags ?Motile: make H2S Non Motile: noH2S?
Wayson’s Stain
44. Yersinia
Pneumonic Plaque Transmission
45. Person to person cf w/ Bubonic plaque that was via infected flea
Splenectomy
46. Predisposes to septicemia
Invasins
47. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Fusiform
48. Vincent’s trench mouth
S. viridans
49. Dextran mediated adherence
Obligate Aerobes
50. Pseudomonas & Mycobacterium
Obligate Anaerobes
51. Clostridium, Actinomyces, Bacteroides
Staph aureus
52. A Protein, Catalase +/ Coagulase +
Spirochetes
53. Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira
Non Motile Gram (+) Rods
54. Corenybacterium D & Nocardia
Acid Fast Organisms
55. Mycobacterium;
Cryptosporidium;
Nocardia (partially);
Legionella micdadei;
Isospora
Pigment Producing Bacteria
56. Serratia – red (can cause pseudohemoptysis)
57. Pseudomonas A – piocyanin blue/green
58. Staph Aureus – yellow – Protein A
59. Mycobacteria – photo/scoto chromogenic – caritinoid – yellow/orange
60. Corneybacterium D – black/gray – pseudomembrane plaque in throat
61. Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) melaninogenicus – black (heme)
62. E. coli – irredescent green sheen
Bacterial Morphology
63. Pneumococci – lancet shaped diplococci
64. Neisseria – kidney bean shaped diplococci
65. Camphylobacter – gulls’ wings/comas
66. Vibrio Cholera – coma shaped
67. Corneybacterium D – club shaped (nonmotile, G+Rod)
68. Yersinia – safety pin seen in Wayson’s stain
Inclusion Bodies
69. Rabies – Negri bodies – intracytoplasmic
70. Pox virus – Guarnieri – intracytoplasmic & acidophilic
71. CMV – Owl’s eyes – intracytoplasmic & intranuclear
72. HSV – Cowdry bodies – intranuclear
Schistosoma Japonicum Monsoni
73. Intestinal – contact w/ bad water
Schistosoma Haematolium
74. Vesicular – contact w/ bad water
Non Human Schistosom
75. Swimmer’s itch – contact w/ bad water
Clonorchichis
76. Chinese liver fluke – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
Fasciola Hepatica
77. Sheep – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
Fasciola Biski
78. Giant intestinal flukes – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
Paragonimus Westermani
79. Lung fluke – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
Oxidase (+)
80. Neiserria and most Gram (-)s
Micro Aerophilic
81. Camphylobacter & Helicobacter
Urease (+)
82. All Proteus – can cause Staghorn/Struvite calculi (NH4- Mg2- stones): alkaline urine
83. Ureaplasma
84. Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter)
85. Cryptococcus
86. Nocardia
Coagulase (+)
87. Staph A & Yersenia pestis
Obligate Intracellular Bacteria
88. Chlamydia Pistacci (Chlamydia do not make own ATP);
Mycobacterium Leprae;
all Rickettsia except Roachalimea (make suficient ATP to survive)
Protozoa
89. Plasmodium; Toxoplasma ghondi; Babesin; Leishmania; Trypanosoma Cruzi
Obligate Non Intracellular Parasites
90. Treponema palidum & Pneumocystis Carinii (cannot be cultured on inert media but can be found extra cellularly in the body)
Haemophilus Factors
91. X = Protoporphyrin & V = NAD
All cocci are
92. Gram (+) except for Neisseria & Moraxella
“Eaton Fried Eggs”
93. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has fried egg colonies on Eaton agar (needs cholesterol)
Mycoplasma
94. No cell wall. Membrane has cholesterol. Smallest living bacteria. 95. P1 protein inhs ciliary action 96. Fried egg colonies 97. Atypical pneumonia – young adults
Sabrands
98. Fungal media
Malassazia furfur
99. Spaghetti & meat ball
Measles’ 3C’s
100. Cough – Coryza – Conjunctivitis. Can also have photophobia 101. May lead to subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
Non Motile Bacilli & Clostridium
102. B. Anthracis & C. Perfringens
Bloody diarrhea agents
103. EIEC – EHEC – Shigella - Yersenia enterocolitica – Entaemeba histolytica –Salmonella – Campylobacter jejuni
YW-135CA
104. N. meningitidis vaccine capsualr polysaccharide strains
Indian Ink
105. Cryptococcus neoformans
Naegleria causes
106. Colonization in the nasal passages after swimming
Need Cysteine for growth
107. “Ella likes cysteine”: 108. Francisella 109. Brucella 110. Legionella 111. Pasturella
Endotoxins, G(+) or G(-)
112. Gram (-): N. meningitidis
Ecthyma Gangrenosum, seen w/
113. Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Target shaped skin lesions w/ a black center and red ring surrounding the lesion
Endospores G(+)
114. Gram (+): Bacillus & Clostridium – made up of dipicolinate & Keratin
Multi Brain Abscess
115. Nocardia
Single Brain Abscess
116. Actinomyces israelli
inc. risk for Strep pneum Infection
117. Asplenic; Sickle cell anemia; immunocompromising illness
á Hemolysis/Optochin Sensitive
118. Strep. Pneumoniae
á Hemolysis/Optochin Resistant
119. Strep. Viridans (Subacute Endocarditis)
Staph. Saprophyticus
120. Novobiocin Resistant (UTIs)
Staph. Epidermidis
121. Novobiocin sensitive (Endocarditis in IVDUs)
â Hemolysis/Bacitracin Sensitive
122. Strep. Pyogenes (pharyngitis; Scarlet fever; cellulitis; impetigo; Rheumatic fever)) 123. Hyaluronic capsule; non-motile; M proteins; Endotoxin A
â Hemolysis/Bacitracin Resistant
124. Strep. Agalactiae (Diabetes predisposes to infection)
EFII Ribosylation
125. Diphtheria toxin & Pseudomonas exotoxon A
Bacillus Anthracis: 3 toxins (work via adenylate cyclase)
126. Protective Antigen (PA) 127. Lethal Factor = toxic to macrophages 128. Edema Factor = inc. cAMP
Woolsorter ‘s Disease
129. Bacillus anthracis. DOC: Penicillin
Grows in Rice
130. Bacillus Cereus
Clostridium Perfringens
131. Double Zone â Hemolysis (test) 132. Lecithinase: á toxin = lyses RBCs 133. 80% of gas gangrene (myonecrosis) cases
Clostridium Difficile
134. 2 Toxins: Enterotoxin (Exotoxin A) & Cytotoxin (Exotoxin B) 135. Pseudomembranous colitis (can be precipitated by clindamycin/ampicillin)
Spastic Paralysis toxin
136. Clostridium Tetani toxin
Clostridium Botulinum
137. Bad canned foods have neurotoxin = flaccid paralysis (block Ach release)
Infant Botulinum
138. Floppy Baby Syndrome. Pre formed toxin in honey
Thayer Martin Agar
139. Neisseria ID
DOC for N. gonorrhoeae
140. Ceftriazone
K1 E. Coli Capsular Ag
141. Related w/ neonateal meningitis
The A’s of Klebsiella
142. Alcoholics 143. Aspiration pneumonia 144. Abscesses in the lungs
Rice H2O Diarrhea
145. Vibrio Cholera: metabolic acidosis
Raw seafood intoxicaiton
146. Vibrio parahemolyticus
Helicobacter Txt
147. Bismuth salts; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (or amoxicillin)
inc. risk of P. aeroginosa infection
148. Burn patients & Cystic fibrosis
Contact lens ‘ infection
149. Pseudomonas aeroginosa
Cat Bites
150. Pasteurella multocida
Undulant Fever
151. Brucella
Bordet Gengou Agar
152. Bordetella pertusis ID
Lowenstein-Jensen medium
153. M. tuberculosis ID
Cat Scratch Disease
154. Bartonella henselae. Lesion can resemble Kaposi’s sarcoma. 155. Toxoplasmosis
Pink Eye
156. Adenovirus (type 8)
True Hemaphrodite
157. Testes & Ovaries are present
Pseudo Hemaphrodite
158. External genitalia does not coincide w/ gonads
Male Pseudo Hemaphrodite
159. Testicular Feminization
HLA Genes Location
160. 6p
Parvovirus B19
161. Fifth Disease: Erythema Infectiosum (ssDNA). Linked w/ sicle cell anemia
Interferon MOA
162. Inhibits viral replication (translation or transcription)
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis
163. Seen w/ infections from Enterovirus & Coxsackie A
Parainfluenza Causes…
164. Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Swimming Pool Conjunctivitis
165. Adenovirus (types 3 & 4)
RSV
166. Bronchiolitis in infants
Removed tonsils, find what virus
167. In 80%, Adenovirus. In the immunosuppressed, activation can occur
Bone Fever
168. Dengue: Group B Togavirus, from the Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos
HbsAg
169. Appears in blood soon after infection, before onset of acute illness 170. Disappears w/in 4-6 months after the start of clinical illness
HbeAg
171. Appears early acute phase, indicates higher risk of transmitting the disease 172. Disappears before HbsAg is gone
Anti-Hbc
173. Present in beginning of clinical illness 174. Seen in the “window phase”
Filamentous Bacteria
175. Actinomycetes = Nocardia; Actinomyces; Streptomyces
Listeria contaminates
176. Milk, cheese, vegetables (coleslaw) in recent infections
Shiga like Toxin
177. E. Coli 0157/H7: Hemorrhagic colitis & Hemorrhagic uremic syndrome
Necrotizing Fasciitis
178. Group A Streptococci
Relapsing Fever
179. Borrelia recurrentis
Loffler’s Medium
180. Corneybacterium diphtheriae
Chlamydiae Developmental Cycle
181. Elementary Body: infeccious particle that Enters the cell 182. Reticulate Body: made from elementary body. Replicates, differentiates and releases elementary bodies to infect other cells 183. W/ infection you will see Glycogen containing inclusions 184. Cell wall lacks muramic acid
Trench Fever
185. Rochalimaea quintana
“Spotted Fever” Members
186. Rickettssia rickettsii (RMSF) & R. akari (rickettsial pox) in the U.S. 187. R. sibirica (tick typhus in China) & R. australis (typhus in Australia)
Thrush Txt
188. Nystatin txts candidiasis of the mouth
Rose Bush Thorns
189. Have Sporothrix schenckii
Contact lens solution infection
190. Acanthamoeba
Filiariasis Causant
191. Wucheria bancrofti (infection aka elephantitis & wucheriasis
Freshwater lake infection
192. Causes amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri
Reduviid bug bite
193. Transmits Trypanoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease): Romana’s Sign
Schistosoma Haematobium causes
194. Bladder calcificaiton & cancer
Schistosoma Mansoni causes
195. Presinusoidal HTN, splenomagaly, esophageal varices
Snail, intermediate host of…
196. Schistosomiasis
Ixodes scapularis transmits
197. Babesia (clinically rembles malaria) & Borelia burgdorferi
Nantucket Protozoa
198. Babesia microt
Infection by Reduviid Bug
199. Trypansoma cruzi: Chagas’ Disease
Infection by TseTse Fly
200. Trypansoma brucei gambiense & rhodiense: African Sleeping Sickness
Infection by Sandfly
201. Leishmaniasis: Mucocutaneous Diseases by L. braziliensis & Visceral Disease by L. donovani & Dermal Leishman by L. tropica, mexicana, peruviana
Infection by Ixodes Tick
202. Babesia microti: Babesiosis & Borrelia burgdorferi: Lyme Disease
Infection by Anopheles Mosquito
203. Malaria
Trophozoites w/ “Face-Like” Appearance
204. Giardia lamblia
Nonseptate Hyphae
205. Zygomycosis: Rhizopus & Mucor. Only mycosis w/o septate. Infect Ketoacidotic Diabetics.
Histoplasmosis Geography
206. Ohio, Mississippi, Misouri River valleys
Coocidioidomycosis Geography
207. Southwestern deserts, California
Blastomycosis Geography
208. States east of Mississippi River
Paracoccidioidomycosis Geography
209. Latin America
Roseola Infection, aka
210. Exanthema Subitum: “Sixth Disease” (Human Herpes Virus-6 dsDNA, enveloped)
Herpangina
211. “Hand-Foot-and-Mouth” Disease: Coxsackie A (Picornavirus +ssRNA)
Orthomyxovirus
212. –ssRNA, enveloped virus.
213. Spike Glycoproteins (peplomeres): HA = Hemagluttinin & NA = Neuraminidase. These peplomeres are what give the virus antigenis variation
214. Influenza A & B
Paramyxovirus
215. –RNA, enveloped. Most common cause of respiratory infections in kids
216. Mumps
217. Croup(Parainfluenza virus)
218. Rubeola(Measles virus)
219. RSV
Togavirus
220. +ssRNA, enveloped
221. 3 Day Measles: German Measles: Rubella/ Rubivirus
222. Encephalitis viruses: Alphaviruses: Eastern (more severe) and Western Equine Encephalitis
Flaviviris
223. Dengue Fever – icterus & hemorrhage w/ blac vomit
224. Yellow fever
225. St. Louis Encephalitis – no hepatitis or hemorrhage
Bunyavirus
226. –ssRNA, enveloped
227. California Encephalitis – severe bifrontal headaches
228. Hantavirus – hemorrhagic fever w/ acute resp. distress syndrome
IgA Protease Activity
229. H. Influenzae (needs factors V & X for growth)
230. Strep. Pneumoniae
231. N. meningitidis
232. N. gonnorhoae
233. W/ this activity these bugs are able to colonize the oral mucosa.
Diphtheria: ABCDEFG
234. Adenopathy
235. â Prophage encodes the exotoxin
236. Corneybacteria is Club shaped
237. Diphtheria
238. Elongation Factor II
239. Granules (metachromatic)
Only ssDNA
240. Parvovirus: “Part of a virus”
Only dsRNA
241. Reovirus, “RepeatOvirus”
Naked RNA
242. “Naked for CPR”: Calcivirus; Picornovirus; Reovirus
2 circular DNAs
243. Papovavirus & Hepadnavirus
BK
244. Papovavirus. Seen in kidney transplant patients (causes renal disease)
Hepadna, Retrovirus?
245. No, but has reverse transcriptase
Picornovirus: “PERCH”
246. Poiliovirus; Echo; Rhino; Coxsackie; Hep A
Hemorrhagic Fevers
221. Filovirus & Bunyavirus (Hantavirus)
Segmented viruses
All are RNA: Orthomyxo; Arena; Bunya; Reo
Eclipse Phase
No internal virus. 1 total virus per cell
Latent Phase
No external virus. Extracellular virus found
Naked Capsid Virus
Nucleocapsid. DNA or RNA + Structural proteins
Enveloped Virus
Membrane. Nucleocapsid + Glycoprotein
Interferon
Non virus specific. Works by RNA endonuclease = digests viral DNA + inh viral prot synth
AIDS structural prots
Gag, pol, env
AIDS regulatory prots
Tat, rev, nef
AIDS gp41 env prot
Transmembrane
AIDS gp120 env prot
Surface
AIDS p17 gag prot
Matrix
AIDS p24 gag prot
Capsid
AIDS p7p9 gag prot
Nucleocapsid
Downey Type II cells
EBV
Infection by Aedes Mosquito
Yellow Fever: Flavivirus: Black vomit, jaundice, high fever
“Hot T-Bone stEAk”:
ILs IL1 = inc. Temp: HOT ---IL2 = stimulate T cells ---IL3 = stimulate Bone Marrow stem cells ‘ growth & differentiation (GM CSF) ---IL4 = stimulate IgE (& IgG) ---IL5 = stimulate IgA (& eosinophils)
ILs Secreted by CD4s
IL2, IL4, IL5, IFN gamma
ILs Secreted by Macrophages
IL1 & TNF á
C5a
Neutral chemotaxis. When it is w/ C3a, participates in anaphylaxis
C5 Convertase
When both Alternative and Classic pathways come together Alternative: C3b, Bb, C3b + C3a -> C5 Classic: 2b, 3b, C3a + C4b -> C5
Only Richettssia not Intracellular
Quintana
Plasmodium Life Cycle
Sporozoites: from blood to liver ---Primary tissue schizont ---Trophozoites: in RBC ---Erythrocytic schizont ---Merozoite: ruptured RBC ---Gametozyte ---Zygote: inside the mosquito
Acanthamoeba
Star shaped cysts
Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia
Nonseptate, filamentous, 90 degree branching, indian in, capsular halos
Cryptococcus Neoformans
Monomorphic
Candida
Yeast normally, pseudo & true hyphae in tissue infections
Aspergillus Fumigatum
45 degree branching point, asoc’d w/ cystic fibrosis & burns pt
Cocciodes
Hyphae in wild. Artroconidia. Arthocondida & Hyphae. Sherules w/ endospores
Histoplasma Cap
Hyphae in wild. Microcondida w/ tuberculate macrocondida. Fac intracellular. In the tissue it’s a yeast w/ a small neck.
Blastomycosis
Hyphae in wild
Sporothrix Schenkii
Hypahe in wild. Potas iodide in milk. Pneumonia in alcoholics.
PCP
Obligate parasite. Kills type I pneumo cells. Ground glass
Gram (-) Bugs w/ Exotoxins
E. Coli; V. Cholera; Bordetella Pertussis
Dermatophytes
Trichophyton: SHN ---Microsporium: SH ---Epidermophyton: SN ---Tinea tavus: permanent hair loss
E. Histolitica
Trans: Cysts Dx.Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Giardia
Trans Cysts Dx.Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Cryptosporidium
Trans Cysts Dx.Acid fast oocysts
Balantium C.
Trans Cysts Dx.Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Trichomonas V.
Trans Trophozoites Dx.Motile trophozoites
Vivax
Fever: Benign 3 degrees 48h Enlarged Host Cell
Ovale
Fever: Benign 3 degrees 48h Oval/Jagged
Malariae
Fever: 4 degrees of Malarial 72hrregular Crescent
Falciparum
Fever: Malignant 3 degrees