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135 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
What is the study of the body structures/parts and relationships to one another
Gross Anatomy
What is the study of large body structures
Microscopic Anatomy
What is the study of those structures too small for the naked eye
Histology
Study of Tissue
Cytology
Study of cells
Development Anatomy
studies those structural changes that occur in the body thoughout the life span ie: Embryology; changes that occur before birth
Physiology
Study of the function of those body parts/structures. How the body works and carries out life sustaining function
Structure determines what
function
If you change the structure you change ________ give example
Function like cancer changes the cell and once you change the structure you change it's function
What are atoms
smalles existing structure
What makes molecules
a group of atoms
What makes cells
Group of molecules. It's the smallest unit of living things
What make up tissue
two or more cells
What makes up an organ
two or more different types of tissure forms
What makes up an organizmal level
Different organ systems working together for the whole organism to stay in homostasis
What make up the organ system
Different organs working together
Name the 11 organ systems and their functions
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Ednocrine, Respiratoy, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Digestive, Urinary and Reproductive
Integumentary System
External support and protection of body
Skeletal System
Internal support and protection; body movement; protection of blood cells
Muscular System
Body movement, production of body heat
Nervous System
Regulation of all body activities; learning and memory
Endocrine System
Secretion of hormones for chemical regulation of all tissues
Respiratory System
Gaseous exchage between external enviroment and blood
Circulatory System
Transport of nutrients to body cells and tranport of wastes away from cells
Lymphatic System
Immunity;absorption of fats; drainage of tissue fluid
Digestive System
Breakdown and absorption of food materials
Urinary System
Maintenance of volume and chemical composition of blood
Reproductive System
Production of sperm and egg; transer of sperm to female system where development occurs
Nutrients via diet
Contains chemical substances used for energy and cell building. Need carbohydrates for fuel, protein for cell building, fat for cushion of organs, insulation and fuel source, minerals for bones, clotting mechanisms
Oxyen
Required because the chemical reaction that release energy from foods ae oxidative. Cells can survive only a few minutes without O2. Involves CV and respiratory system
Water
60-80% of body wt; most abundant chemical. Get it from foods and liquids ingested. Evaporates from lungs and skin and body excretion.
What happens to RBC when you have to much water
they burst
If chemical reastions are to occur in the body ____ ____ ____ must be maintained
Normal Body Temp; below 37 degrees than metabolism slows down and above 37 and metabolism speeds up-protein breakdown and stop funcioning leading to cell death
Atmospheric Pressure
force that air exerts on the body surface.
What requires the apropriate atmopheric pressure
Breathing and gas exchange. Increase in altitude will decrease the O2 which is not adequate enough to support cellulare metabolism. Too much O2 is toxic to cells
All cells are surrounded by what
selectively permeable membrane
The body itself is covered and protected by what
the integument (skin)
Movement is usuall by ____ ____ for body movement
skeletal muscles it provides the framework
Internal movement include:
blood flow, foodstuff, urine
Cellular movement
Includes the ability of muscle cells to move by shortening in otherwords contractility. If small and libable it passes thru the membrane like alcohol and gas
Responsiveness or irritablity
Ability to sense change in the enviroment and then respond. Ex: cut hand-withdraw reflex occurs or increase in CO2 the body responds by sending message o brain which controls respiration and tells lungs to increase breathing
Digestion
Food is taken in and broken down into absorbable molecules into the bolld ahtu the CV system which distrutes nutrients to the body cells
Metabolism
All chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is regulated by hormones of the endocrine system
Metabolism: Catabolism & Anabolism
Catabolism- breakdown of stbstances into simpler structures
Anabolism- buildup of simple structures into complex ones
Excretion
The process of removing wastes from the body. Digestive system: thru feces
Urinary system: N2 rich urine
Respiratory system: CO2
Reproduction
Occurs at the cellular and organizmal level. It's responible for the production of offspring but needs endocrine system to function properly.
Do ovaries reproduce
no
Do nerve tissue reproduce
no
Growth
Increase in size of body part or the organism. For growth to occur xonstructive activities have to occur faster tahn destructive ones
Regional Terms
2 divisions: axil or main axis of the body which includes had neck, head, trunk
Dorsal Cavity
Consist of the cranium and the spinal or vetbral cavity
Ventral cavity
is superior and xontains laterally the pleural cavities which house the lungs and teh medistinum medially which contain pericadial cavity
Pericardal cavity
which encloses the heart and the remaining thoraxix organs such as the esopagus, traches
Mediastinum
heart, aorta
Abdominopelvic cavity
inferor and sperated by the muscular structed called the diaphrgm which is important in breathing
Abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, liver, spleen, intestines
Pelvic cavity
contains bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by an exceedingly thin double layered membrane
serous membrane only located in Ventral cavity
Parietal serosa and examples
the lining that covers the cavity walls.
Parietal Pericardium
the membrane which surrounds the walls of the heart
Reproduction
Occurs at the cellular and organizmal level. It's responible for the production of offspring but needs endocrine system to function properly.
Do ovaries reproduce
no
Do nerve tissue reproduce
no
Growth
Increase in size of body part or the organism. For growth to occur xonstructive activities have to occur faster tahn destructive ones
Regional Terms
2 divisions: axil or main axis of the body which includes had neck, head, trunk
Dorsal Cavity
Consist of the cranium and the spinal or vetbral cavity
Ventral cavity
is superior and xontains laterally the pleural cavities which house the lungs and teh medistinum medially which contain pericadial cavity
Pericardal cavity
which encloses the heart and the remaining thoraxix organs such as the esopagus, traches
Mediastinum
heart, aorta
Abdominopelvic cavity
inferor and sperated by the muscular structed called the diaphrgm which is important in breathing
Abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, liver, spleen, intestines
Pelvic cavity
contains bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by an exceedingly thin double layered membrane
serous membrane only located in Ventral cavity
Parietal serosa and examples
the lining that covers the cavity walls.
Parietal Pericardium & Visceral Pericardium
P-the membrane which surrounds the walls of the heart ex: sturnm
V-the membrane which surrounds the heart itself
Parietal Pluera & Visceral Pluera
P-lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
V-covers the lungs
Parietal Peritoneum & Visceral Peritomeum
P-associated with the walls of the abd. ex: muscles, cavity
V-covers most of the organs within the cavity
Serous membranes are filled with what
serous fluid, which is secreted by both membranes and allows the organs to move up and down and around without friction cross the cavity wall
Homeostasis
The ability to maintain stable internal conditions even though the world outsid changes in other wors a state of equilibrium. When needs are met we are in homeostasis. When not you have a disease.
Control Mechanism
Requires communication between nervous and endocrine systems: Variable, receptor, control center, and effector
Variable
a factor or event being regulated
Receptor
a sensor that monitors the enviroment and responds to change called stimuli by sending into to normally endocrine
Contol center
determines set point at which variable ti to be maintained, analses it adn determines a response normall the brain
Effector
provides means for control center's response:stablize
A stimulsis is something that changes the variable. What is the variable
State of equilibrium
When you are not in homeostasis your body readjust by what
Negative feedback mechanism or Positive feedback mechanism
Negative feedback mechanism
Shuts off the original stimulus or decreases the intensity and prevents sudden evere changes to occur within the body. It causes the variable to chage in a direction opposite to that initial change thereby returning it back to its normal state. Won't stop until back to normal. More abudant then positive
Positive feedback mechanism
The response exaggerates or enhances the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated or in other words the variable occurs in the same direction deviating further and further away from the original value. Therefore since they tend not to return you to a normal state they occur infrequently. These events are self perpetuating and have an amplifing effect and are often referred to as cascading events. Ex: clotting factor, oxytocin for contractions in child birth
Cell
The basic structural and funcional unit of living organisms.
A human cell has three main parts
Plasma membrane: a fragile barrier, the outer boundary of the cell, seperate extracellur fluid from intracellur fluid
Ctoplasm: packed with organelles which are small structures that perform specific cell functions
Nucleus: Which is surrounded byt he cytoplasm and controls cellular activities and usually lies near the cell's center ex: the brain
Fluid Mosaic Model
This hypothesis depicts the plasma membrane as an exceedingly thin structure composed of a double layer or bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules dispersed in it. The proteins may float in the fluid lipid bilayer and form a constantly changing mosaic pattern
Lipid bilayer
contructed largely of phopholipids with smaller amounts of cholesterol and glycolopids. Each lolipop shaped phospholipid molecule has a polar head that is charged and is hydrophilic and a tail made of two fatty acid chains that if uncharged and hydrophobic
The polar heads are attracted to what and the tails avoid what
H2O the main constituents of both the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid so they lie both the inner and outer faces of the membrane. The tails avoid the H2O and line up in the center of the membrane
Inner adn Outer layers of the membrane contain what kind of lipids
About 10% of the externall facing phopholipid molecules are glycolipids wotj attacje sugar group which makes the glycolipid molecule polar. 20% of membrane lipids are cholesterol which stabilizes the lipid membrane by wedgingits platelike hydrocarbon righs between the phospholipid tails and immoblizing parts of them
What are the two ditinct membrane proteins of a plasma membrane
Integral and Peripheral Proteins
Intergral Proteins
firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer. Some protude from on membrane face but most are transmembrane protein. They have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions and con interact with tails and heads of the lipid bilayer. They are channels or pores thru which small, water soluble molecules or ions can move and thus bypass the lipid parts. Others act as carriers that bind substance and move it thru membrane.
Signal transduction
Proteins that face only the external environment are usually receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and act torelay a message to the cell interior
Peripheral Proteins
not embedded in the lipid layer. They attach loosely to intefral proteins or membrane lipids on the inner or outer faces of membrane and are easily removed wothout disrupting themembrane. They include a network of filaments thathelp support the membrane from its cytoplasmic side. Some are enzymes. Others change the cell shape during cell division and muscle cell contractionor linking cell together
Many of the proteins that abut the extracellular space are _______
glycoprotein- have a sugar chain attached.
Glycocalyx
refers to the area of cell surface with the stick sugar surface. Every cell type has a different pattern of sugars in its glycocalyx so the glycocalyx provides highly specific biological markers for approachin cells to recognize
Movement of substances thru the plasma membrane occurs in essentially what two ways
Passive processes and Active Processes
Passive Processes
allow sbastances to pass thru the membrane without any energy input from the cell
Active processes
requires metabolic energy (ATP) from the cell to mive the substances across the membrane
Passive Processes: Diffusion
The most important, the tendecy of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughtout the enviroment, bouncing off one anotther so that move from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration. Molecules move along or down a concentration gradient.
Remembering that interior plasma membrane is hydrophobic and so diffusion occurs if the mole is what
lipid soluble, small enough to pass thru membrane channel or assisted by carrier molecule
Simple Diffusion
Substances that are nonpolar and lipid soluble diffuse right thru the membrane and include oxgen,CO2, fat soluble vitamins and alcohol.
Oxygen is in greater concentration in the blood than in tissue cells, so what happens
oxygen continuously enters the cells, whereas CO2 from the cell where it is greater to the blood
Most water-soluble particles are unable to do what
unable to diffuse through the lipid bilayer because they are repelled by the nonpolar fatty acid chain (tail)but polar and charged particles can diffuse thru the membrane if they are small enoung to pass thru the water-filled pores constructeed by the channel protein.
Facilitated Diffusion
Glucose and other simple sugars are too polar to dissovle in the lipid bilayer and too large to pass through the channels. They move through very rapidly however by facilitated diffusion. Here the sure combines with protein carrier in the membrane and are released into the cytoplasm.
Glucose
Is higher in the blood with Facilitated diffusion. It transport is typically unidirectional into the cells for ATP synthesis
Osmosis
The diffusion of a solvent usually water thru a selectively permeable membrane. Osmosis occurs whenever the water concentration on either side of the membrane differs. When this happens they level out by moving one molecule of solute and replacing it with a water molecule.
Osmolarity
The total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
Osmosis or diffusion into the cells is controlled by what
Hydrostatic pressure
Osmotic Pressure
The pressure applied to a solution to prevent the passage of asolvent into it or the tendency to prevent further water entry.
The higher the # of nonpentrating solutes within the cell the higher the ____ ____ and the greater the ____ ____ that must be developed to resist further net water entry.
Osmotic Pressure (#of solutes)
Hydrostatic Pressure (fluid pressure)
Tonicity
the ability of a solution to change the tone or shape of cells by altering their internal water volume. # of solutes non penetrating membrane
Isotonic Solutions
such 5% glucose, .9% saline are solutions with the same concentrations of nonpenetrating solute then the cell. There is no net loss/gain of water
Hypertonic Solution
such as brine have a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than the cell. Cells immersed in this solution will lose water and shrink.
Hypotonic Solution
have fewer nonpenetrating solutes and therefore plump up as water ruses in. Distilled water is hypotonic
What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity
O-the total # of solutes
T-the nonpenetrating solutes
Filtration
The processes that forces water and solutes through membranes and capillary walls by fluid or hydrostatic pressure. Water and solutes are pushed from a higher to a lower are of pressure.
Active Process
The movement of solutes across the cell membrane bu use of ATP which occurs against the concentration gradient. There are two active transports: active and vesicular
Active Transport
Requires a carrier potein that combine specifically and reversible with the transported substances however it works against the cincentration gradient.
Vesicular Transport
large particles and macromolecules are transported across plasma membranes vesicular transport.
What are the two types of vesicular transport
Exocytosis and Endocytosis
Exocytosis
A process of moving substances from the cell interior into the extracellular space
Endocytosis
Provides a mean for large particles to enter the cell. The plasma membrane infolds aroung the substance and pulls it in.
Antiport & Symport
A-means substance that move in opposite direction or wave to each other as they cross the membrane
S-system is two substances moving across hte membrane in the same direction
Water occcupies two main compartments in the body what are they
intracellular and extracellular
Intracellular
60% by volume which actually consists of trillions of tiny individual compartments. The cells are about 25L of 40L of body water
Extracellular
33% of volume which is out side the cell and makes up the body's internal environment which has 2 subdivisions interstitial fluid and plasma
Interstitial Fluid
the fluid in the microscopic spaces between cells
Examples of Extracellular Fluid compartments
Lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, synovia, humors of the eyes, serous fluid, gastrointestinal secretions.
What are the many functions of epithelium tissue
protection, absorption, filtration/diffusion, excretion, secretion, sensory reception
Cellularity
composed almost entirely of close-compact cells with only a small amount of extracellular material