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95 Cards in this Set

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What is a Host?
???
What is Normal Biota>
All over Body, Surface or opening.
Endogenous Infection
Normal biota takes advantage. Opportunistic organism
Exogenous Infection
Someone coughs on you and gets you sick.
True Pathogen
the Worse its job is to infect even if you are healthy
Opportunistic Pathogen
???
Virulence
???
5 Phases of Disease
Period of Incubation
Period of Prodromal Symptom
@this point you still have a chance to fight.
Period of Acme
Period of Decline
Period of Convalescence
7 Steps to Establishing Disease
Portal of Entry
Infectious Dose
Attach to Host Cells
Survive Host Defenses
Establishment
Disease
Portal of Exit
What are some portal of Entries
Respiratory
Digestive
Subjective Parts of being sick
Symptoms - What the patient feels
Objective part of being sick
Signs - See measure record
Syndrome
Set of signs and symptoms
Signs of Blood Infection
Fever WBC Bacteremia Viremia Septicemia
2 categories for how you get sick
Direct Contact, Indirect Contact
Direct Contact Examples
Sex, Shake Hands, Kissing, Droplets (sneeze) Vertical
Indirect Contact Methods
Food and h20 Fomites (touch item by sick person, then you touch it, Vector (mosquito transfer, Carriers (people carry it and spread, Reservoirs (water, soil)
Nosocomial Infections
Hospital Acquired - Staph, strep Grods
Most common Nosocomial
#1 UTI 40%
#2 Surgical sites
#3 Respiratory
What are UPs?
Universal Precautions
Wash Hands
Gloves
Mask
In Epidemiology what report does the CDC put out?
Morbidity and mortality report
Prevalence
Total number of cases in the population
Incidence
Number of new cases at the time
Morbidity Rate
Number of people who are sick
Mortality Rate
Number of people who have died
Communicable Diseases
Contagious easily spread
Non-Communicable Diseases
Not easily spread like cancer, Diabetes
Endemic
Small Village size
Epidemic
City or State Size
Pandemic
World Wide
Primary Illness
Healthy then gets sick
Secondary Illness
If you are already sick, you have a cold and you get pneumonia
Acute Sickness
Comes and goes quick
Chronic Sickness
Sticks around a long time
Local sickness
tonsillitis
Systemic
Cancer - it spreads
Reportable Diseases
Diseases that can hurt others or be spread.
1st and 2nd line of defense are called...
Non specific defenses
2 categories in the 1st line of defense are...
Physical - Chemical
Examples of Physical barriers in portals of entry
skin, mucus membranes ear wax nose hair
example of chemical barriers in the portals of entry
stomach acid, low ph urine, lysozyme, interferon, sweat
what happens during the second line of defense
Phagocytosis - Cell Eating
Inflamation all WBC run to area
bad fever 104
NK cells (cancer cells
complement (30 or more proteins in blood that complement t and b cells)
4 signs of inflamation
turns red
gets warm
swells up
pain
5th loss of function
how is puss made
cell eating and inflamation
Specific Defense
The 3rd line of defense - T Cells and B cells
Whose job is the immune system
The 2nd and 3rd line of defense
Job for the immune system
• 1. Surveillance of the body (blood, internal stuff)
• 2. Recognition of enemies (antigens)
• 3. Destruction
What makes tcells special
They know who they are fighting
Eukaryotic Pathogens, Nasty bug with a nucleus
Protozoans
fungus
cancer cells
tissue transplant
what makes b cells special
make antibodies - they look like y
mostly they target viruses, sometimes bacteria and then seldom toxins
they are neutralizer
Stemcells come from.....
Bone marrow
To become a T cell you...
Travel to the thymus, grow up and become immunogompetent then travel to the lymph nodes
to become a B Cell you...
Stay in the bone marrow 3-4 days then become immunicompetent then travel to the lymph nodes
t cells systems are called the
CMI systems
cell mediated immunity
B cells systems are called the
AMI systems
antibody mediated immunity
IgG
80%
IgA
Colostrum
IgM
the nosey neighbor
IgE
Allergies
IgD
Membrane
Tcells
Cytotoxic
Helper - CD4
Suppressor
Memory Cells
?
4 Categories to become immune
Naturally acquired active immunity
Naturally acquired Passive Immunity
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
get sick
exposure
Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity
Mom
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
Vaccine
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity
• Antiserum – Gamma globulin can be a treatment or prophylaxis
• Antitoxin vs Toxin
Antitoxin is the treatment and toxoid is to give immunity Vaccine
Bacteria
Virus
Toxoid
First Mass produced Vaccine
Polio - Salk Killed Inactivated
First Live virus
Polio Sabin Live Attenuated
1st generation virus
whole virus
bacteria
toxoid
what is first exposure called
the primary antibody response
how long does the primary antibody response take
14 days - then you are left with memory cells
When you get sick again what is it called
the second antibody response
how long does the secondary AB response last
1-2 days - you dont feel it b/c it does too fast
2nd generation vaccination is made with....
cell pieces
3rd generation vaccines are made with...
clones
What is an allergy
a hypersensitivity of the immune system
what are the 4 types of allergic reactions
type 1 immediate hypersensitivity
type 2 antibody mediated hypersensitivity
type 3 immune complex mediated hypersensitivity
type 4 t cell mediated
Immediate hypersensitivity
o within 2 or 3 minutes you see a reaction
o IgE, Mast Cell, Histamine
o Treat with Antihistamine
Antibody Mediated Hypersensitivity
o The cell is the invader
o IgG, IgM, Complement
o treat with antiserum
Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity
o 2 stick together ex. (Ab-Ag) AMI
o IgG, IgM, Complement
T cell mediated Hypersensitivity
T cells are the cause
What are the 2 levels of severity with type 1
anaphylaxis
atopy (common allergy)
how to treat type 1 allergy
• Epinephrine
• Benadryl
• Cortisone
What is atopy
• Hay fever
• Asthma
• Food Allergy
• Drug Allergy
• Eczema
• Hives
What is the cell invader with type 2 allergies
Blood

• Mixing blood types
• Hemolytic Disease Rh Factor
What is the issue with type 3 allergy?
Type 3 is usually an autoimmune disease
• Your body stops recognizing you as yourself and starts attacking you
• lupus is an example - complement comes along and trys to help but it destroys part of you in the process
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Treatment is immunosuppresses
How does one react with Tcell allergy>
Type 4 is your Tcells going crazy 2-3 days
• Contact Dermatitis-
• Infection Allergies
What are the 4 types of grafts
Autograft
isograft
allograft
xenograft
autograft
the perfect graph, it comes from you
isograft
identical twins also same dna
Allograft
donation between same species
Xenograft
Different Species (pig heart)
What is graft vs Host?
the graft rejects you
What is brutons agammaglobulinemia?
• No Mature b-cells
• no plasma cells
• no antibodies
• no memory cells
• no ami
What is Di George Syndrome?
• No Thymus Gland
• No Mature t cells
• No Memory
• No CMI
What is Scid?
• Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
• Gene Therapy
• empty lymph nodes