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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Flagella composed of
Protein
What are Flagella used for
Motility
How does flagella produce mitility
it spins around the basal body
What two function do Pili Do?
Sex
Adhesion
What if a bug lost its pili used for adhesion
It wouldnt be infective
How does a capsule protect the bug
Protects from PMN and Mo Phagocytosis
What is a capusle composed of
Polysacs
How does India Ink work
It stains everything by the capsule appears like halo
How does Quellung work
Antibodies against the bacteria bind the capsule and make it swell in water
How do we overcome antiphagocytic properties of a capsule
Opsonization
We immunize to Pneumo to produce antibodies to lots of Capsular Antigens
Where do we use Capsular antigen for production of vaccine
Pneumovax
H Flu B
Meningocaccal
Who can produce spores
Only 2 bacteria:
GRAM POSITIVE AEROBIC BACILLUS,
ANAEROBIC CLOSTRIDIUM
What are the five layers of a spore
PM
PG Mesh
PM
Keratin like protein
exosporium
What can a spore survive thru?
HEAT
COld
Drying
Chemical Agents
Can a spore survive autoclaving?
No
What conditions are in an autoclave
121 C for 15 minutes
When are spores formed
when the environmedn is hostile
Who can invade a cell
Listeria
Salmonella
Yersinia
Francisella
Brucella
Legionella
Mycobacter
Are endotoxins excreted
Hell No, there a component of the cell
Where are exotoxin genes encoded
They are on plasmids
What is the principal effect of endotoxin
Septic Shock
How does endotoxin make shock
Via the release of Mo TNF and IL1
Can you make antibodies to endo and exotoxins
Only to exotoxins, not endotoxins
Are endotoxins heat stable
Endoxin is stable at 100 C for 1 hour
What does Neurotoxin do?
exotoxins that affect nerves
Gimme two examples of Neurotoxin
Tetani - blocks Gly release- lockjaw
Botulinum - Blocks AcH relaese - CNS paralysis - floppy baby
Gimme two examples of Enterotoxin Dz
Infectious Diarrhea
Food poisoning
What four can cause Infectuous diarrhea
Vibrio - duh
E Coli - Duh
Campylobacter JEJUNI - helloooo
Shigella - yup
How does Shiga Toxin Work
It Cleaves host cell rRNA and enhances cytokine release causing HUS
So how does food poisoning work
Bug releases tocin in food causing VD for 24 hours
Bacillus and Staph
What do Pyrotoxins do
Cause release of cytokines causing Rash Fever and TSS
What are the primary mediators in septic shock other than toxin
IL1 and TNF
What the mortality in septic shock
40% but more if multiple organs are damaged
How is the heart affected in shock
Decreased CO, BP, organ hypoperfusion
How are the lungs affected in shock
ARDS and Hypoxia
How is the brain affected in Shock
Encephelopathy
How do you traet Septic Shock
First Broad Range Ab, then look for source of bugs, and supportive therapy
Where would you find the infection most often in Spetic Shock
1. Resp Track
2. Abdominal
3. UTI