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21 Cards in this Set

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Suggests that diseases are caused by “invisible” organisms
Fracastoro
_____Uses simple microscopes to see “animalcules” (little animals)in a variety of natural environments
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
First direct observation of microbes
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
_____Observes that maggots arise “spontaneously” on uncovered meat, but do not arise if meat covered with cloth (stops contact by flies)

And Concludes_______
Redi

Concludes that spont. gen. is not true for higher life forms
__boils corn extract “broth” → pours into flask → covers flask ⇒ animalcules appear in broth after a few days

And Concludes _____
Needham

concludes that animalcules arise spontaneously from broth
____boils corn extract inside a sealed flask ⇒ no animalcules
Spallanzani
____ does the “swan-neck” flask experiment

And disproves ____
Pasteur

spont. generation
In __ Microbiology changes from an observational science to an experimental science (the “___ Age” of Microbiology)
1800’s

Golden Age
___ observed that previous infection by cowpox prevents later infection by smallpox
Jenner
___ observed some diseases (eg. Cholera) are transmitted by polluted water
Snow
Pasteur observed:
-
-
-
- yeast converts sugar to alcohol
- mild heating of foods (pasteurization) delays spoilage
- microbes cause disease vs. being a result of disease (“Germ Theory”)
___observes keeping microbes out of surgical wounds reduced the rate of post-surgical infections
Lister
____reproduced disease by injecting healthy cows with anthrax microbe
Koch
_____proof of the Germ Theory (ie. a microbe can cause disease)
Koch
____'s Binomial System
Linnaeus
The Gram Stain:
____=primary stain
Iodine=____
____= “decolorizer”
____ = “counterstain”
Crystal Violet (CV)
combines with CV & allows it to bind better (no color change occurs)
Alcohol
Safranin
Acid - Fast Stain (“___” stain): 1. Add __ (red primary stain) to smear 2. Apply heat 3. De-colorize with ___ 4. Counterstain with ___
Ziehl-Neelsen” stain
Carbol Fuchsin
acidic alcohol
methylene blue
Acid-fast” bacteria (will/ won't) de-colorize
Non acid-fast bacteria (will/ won't) de-colorize
___are acid-fast(most other bacteria are not)
won't(retain primary stain & stay red)
will(lose primary stain & counterstain blue
Mycobacteria
Required or Optional Function
(nutrients, wastes)
- Communicate with other bacteria
- Replicate genetic information and pass on to next generation
- Evolve
Opt
Req
Req
Required or Optional Function
- Store nutrients for later use
- Enclose internal contents and separate from environment
specific molecules
- Create structures specialized for survival (spores)
- Biosynthesis of cellular components
Opt
Req
Opt
Req
Required or Optional Function
- Movement
- Allow entry and exit of specific molecules
- Attachment to other cells
or surfaces
- Exchange genetic information with other bacteria
Opt
Req
Opt
Opt