Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/165

Click to flip

165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Does silver nitrate work for trachoma?
no
What antibiotics work on trachoma? (2)
(1)erythromycin (2)tetracycline in newborns (3)tetracylines, erythromycin, and rifampin for urogential infections
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
(1)CNS (2)PNS
what are three types of name for the ways that microbes can invade the brain? (3)
(1)physical truma (2)meningitis (2)encephalitis
What is the CNS?
the brain and the spinal cord
The main two ways how the microbes can invade the brain is (1)
(1)physcial tramua along the peripheral nerves when the brain is inflamed
What is the PNS?
the nerves that branch off the brain and spinal cord
What is meningitis?
inflammation of the meginges
What is encephalitis?
inflammation of the brain
NAME
is the brain and the spinal cord
CNS
NAME
inflammation of the brain
encephalitis
NAME
is the nerves that branch off the brain and spinal cord
PNS
NAME
inflammation of the megines
meningitis
What does PNS stand for?
peripheral nervous system
What are the symptoms of bacterial meningitis?
(1) high fever (2)headache, (3)a stiff neck followed by nausea and vomiting (4)may lead to convulsions and coma (5)symptoms of are vague infants (6) may cause death (7)surviors have some neurgogical damage such as learning disabitlies, hearing loss, and brain damage
NAME
(1) high fever (2)headache, (3)a stiff neck followed by nausea and vomiting (4)may lead to convulsions and coma (5)symptoms of are vague infants (6) may cause death (7)surviors have some neurgogical damage such as learning disabitlies, hearing loss, and brain damage
bacterial meingitis
what does CNS stand for?
central nervous system
NAME
is caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
pnenumococcal meningitis
What do the four types of meningits have in a common? (4)
(1)cause more than 70% of the infections (2) all have a capsule (3) are common inhabitants of the nose and throat (4)mostly young childeren
What is phnenumoccoal meningitis? (3)
(1)mortalilty is high (2)vaccine offers some protection offered for elederly but recommonded for childern under two (3)antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat
What is haempophilus inflenze meningitis? (2)
(1)type b (hib) (2)was the most common unti vaccine
What are meninges?
are 3 continous membranes
NAME
is type b= hib
haempophilus influenzae meningitis
NAME
are 3 continous membranes
meninges
NAME
was the most common but expected to be eradiacted in the US by vaccine that starts at two months of age
haempophilus influenzae meningitis
What causes meningococcal meningiitis?
neisseria meningitidis
Draw and label the firgue of the brain
firgue 22.2 on page 617
NAME
has a hight mortality and antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat
phneunomoccoal menintitis
NAME
is caused by neisseria meningitidis
meningococcal meningitis
What are the three layers of the spinal meninges?
(1)dura mater (2) arachnoid mater (3) pia mater
What is the subarachnoid space?
a space that contains CSF
What is meningococcal meninitis?
(1)endotoxins cause symptoms and serious tissue damage (2)leading cause of bacterial meningits in youth (3)there is vaccine (4) rash in only this form of mengitis w faint purple-red spots anywhere on the body
What causes Listerisois?
listeria monctyogenes
NAME
endotoxins cause symptoms and serious tissue damage
meningococcal meningitis
NAME
is space that contains CSF and is susceptible to infection
subarachniod space
NAME
is the leading cauase of bacterial meninitis in young adults
meningococcal meningitis
Why is the subarachniod space susceptible to infection?
bc of few cicrulating antibodies that are found in it
NAME
rash in only this form of mengitis with purple-red spots anywhere on the body
meningococcal menintitis
What is the only way that drugs can get from the blood to the brain?
only if they are lipid-soluble
NAME
is caused by listeria monctyogenes
listerisois
in meningococcal meinitigis, what causes the faint purple-red bruises?
the toxins that break down the blood vessels walls that allow blood to laek out into the skin
The nervous system has a (1)
blood-brain barrier
in meningococcal menintigis what causes symptoms? tissue damge?
(1)endotoxins (2)if they enter the blood
What is the only way antibotics can enter the brain that are not lipid soluble?
brain inflammation alter the blood-brain barrier
Does the meningococcal meningitis vaccine work in childern?
no
W the meningoccoal meningococcal meningitis vaccine, what happens after you get the shoot and how long does it last?
(1)the antibody level decreases over 2-3 yrs (2)recommondemnded at 3-5 yrs
T or F
meningococcoal meningitis is on the increae
true
What is the source of listerisois? which is its primary source? (6)
(1)soil,(2)water,(3)sewage (4)esp milk (5)domestic animals or human carriers (6)a wide range of foods
Whom is the meningococcal meningitis vaccine used on? (2)
(1) mililtary (2) recommended for college fresham esp those moving into the dorms
What is Pneumoccoal meningitis caused by?
streptococcus pneumoniae
Listerisois is usally (1)-borne
food
How is listerisois normally killed? (2)
(1)anitseptics (2)pasteurization
Can listeriosis grow at refrigerater temp?
yes
What are the symptoms of listeriosis? (3)
(1)usally a mild dease in adults but is bad for immunosuprresed, w cancer or pregant people (2)usally is meningitis (3)w pregenat women, crosses the placenta and infects the fetus causing sponateous abortions, stillbirths, septicemia, and meningits
NAME
is normally a mild disease in adults but is bad for immunpsuprresed people, w cancer, or pregant causing meningitis.
listeriosis
NAME
can be found w torch, and w, pregant people, the microbe crosses the placenta and infects the fetus causing sponateous abortions, stillbrith, septicemia, and meningits
listeriosis
NAME
sources include,
1)soil,(2)water,(3)sewage (4)esp milk (5)domestic animals or human carriers (6)a wide range of foods
listeriosis
What is botulism caused by ?
clostridium botulinum
NAME
is caused by clostridium botulinum
botulism
What is tentanus caused by?
clostridium tentai
NAME
is caused by clostridium tentai
tentanus
What is botulism?
is the most toxic form of food posining in humans in which exotoxins that are neurotoxins prevent the release of acetlycholine which causes the relexation of involunatry muscle groups
NAME
is the most toxic form of food posining in humans
botulism
NAME
exotoxins that are neurotoxins prevent the release of acettylcholine
botulism
NAME
causes the relexation of involuntary muscle groups
preventing the release of acetylcholine caused by Botulism
NAME
can cause floppy baby syndrome from honey, corn, syrup, dust, and botox
botulism
Botulism can cause not only food posining but (1)
floppy baby syndrome
What are the sources of floppy baby syndrome caused by botulism?
(1)honey (2)corn syrup (3)dust (4)Botox
What tetanus?
it can be caused by punture wounds or soil causing lockjaw and neurotoxins can cause the contraction of involunatry muscles
NAME
is caused by punture wounds or the soil causing lockjaw
tetanus
NAME
neurotoxins can cause the contraction of voluntary muscle groups
tetanus
Poliomyelitis refers to (1)
polio
polio's real name is (1)
poliomyeltitis
Give some exs of viral disease of the nervous system?
(1)Polio (2)Rabies (3)arboviral encephalitis
Polio, rabies, and arboviral encephalitis are exs of (1) diseases that affects the (2)
(1)viral (2)nervous system
What are the symptoms of polio?
(1)a few headaches a day (2)sore throat (3)fever (4)more seriously, paralysis when the virus moves to the CNS (5)maternal antibodies protect infants who if expoxsed are usally asymptomatic in devolping countries
NAME
symtpoms include a few days of headache, sore throat, and fever and if seriosuly, paraylsis when the virus move to the CNS
polio
NAME
maternial antibodies protect infants who if exposed are usally asymtonmatic in devoloping countires
polio
How does polio affect the nervous system?
(1)affects only certain motor nerve cells of the spinal cord or infects the brain (2)the site of paralysis depends on the location of the destroyed nerve cells
NAME
only certain motor nerve cells of the spinal cord are affected and the brain is infected
polio
in polio, what does the site of paralysis depend on?
the location of the destroyed nere cells
What is the post-polio syndrome? (2)
(1) may occur 25 years or more years after the intial attack (2)symtoms include fatigue, weakness, pain, and loss of muscle mass
NAME
may occur 25 years or more after the intial attack and symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pain, and loss of muscle mass
post-polio syndrome
How is polio transmitted?
by the a fecal oral route
NAME
is transmitted by the fecal oral route
polio
What led to outbreaks of polio in the United States in childeren and teens?
sanitation
What is a the fecal oral route?
the ingestion of water or food that is contaminated w feces
NAME
refers to the ingestion of water or food that is contaminated w feces
fecal oral route
What is the salk vaccine?
created in 1954 and is a enchanced inactivated polio vaccine strain (E-IPV) that requires 3 injections
NAME
created in 1954 and is a enchanced inactivated polio vaccine strain (E-IPV) that requires 3 injections
salk vaccine
What are the two of the three different serotypes of vaccines used to prevent polio? (2)
(1)salk vaccine (2)Sabin vaccine
What is the Sabin vaccine?
(1)is a live attenuated virus oral polio virus that is excreted in feces (2)higher levels of immunity acquied (3)danger if immuno-compromised
NAME
is a live attenuated virus oral polio virus that is excreted in feces
sabin vaccine
NAME
a vaccine that has higher levels of immunity acquied and there is danger if immuno-compromised
sabin vaccine
rabies is latin for (1)
rage
NAME
is latin for rage
rabies
NAME
receives singals and converts them and sends them out to the body organs
CNS
NAME
Sends creates singals ands sends them to the CNS and aka is senserory
PNS
What does aggutination mean?
clumping
What test is used to find Meningoccoacal meningitis?
Latex aggutination test
NAME
can be found through the Latex aggutination test
Meningoccocal meningitis
What is a booster dose?
means given in three injections
Which is better the Salk vaccine or the Sabin vaccine? (compare and contrast)
(1) Sabin vaccine= adavantage is have no live bacteria regneration and the disadavantage is that its in a booster dose (2) Sabin vaccine's advantage is that it is giving oral and the disadvantage is that the bacteria can regenerate
What causes rabies?
Rhabdo virus
NAME
is caused by Rhadbo virus
rabies
What is the source of Rabies?
zoonosis
NAME
the source is zoonosis
rabies
What is zoonosis?
are bites from animals in the wild
NAME
are bites from animals in the wild
zoonosis
Where are there no Rabies?
(1)Austerila (2)Great Britian (3)New Zealand
NAME
can come from fox, skunks, coyotes, and bats
rabies
T or F
there are rabies in Australia, Great Briitain, and New Zealand
False
NAME
the incubation period ocurs usally w/in 30 to 50 days
rabies
What is the incubation period for rabies?
30 to 50 days but can be shorter if ocurs on face or hands bc rabies moves through the blood to the CNS faster
What are the symtpoms of Rabies?
once symptoms of agiation and hydrophobia begin in almost always fatal w in a few days (2) there is no treatment (3)death results from ecephaltis
NAME
once symtpoms of agitation and hydrophobia begin is almost always fatal w in days. There is no treatment and death results from encephalitis
Rabies
What is Arboviral Encephaltis?
Encephaltis caused by mosquito born viruses caused by arboviruses
What arboviruses?
anthropod born viruses
NAME
are anthropod born viruses
arboviruses
NAME
is encephatlitis caused by mostquio born viruses caused by arboviruses
Arboviral Encephaltis
What are the symtpoms of Arboviral Encephaltis?
(1)begins w chills, headache, fever, and then confusion and coma (2) surviors may have permanent neurogical problems
NAME
symptoms begins w chills, headache, fever, and then confusion and coma. Surviors may have permanent neurogical problems
Arboviral Encephaltis
What is the source of Arboviral Encephaltis?(3)
Zoonotic (2)senitenal animals (3)birds and horses
NAME
sources may include zoontic, senitneal animals and birds and horses
Arbobiral Encephalitis
What are sentinel animals?
caged chickens or rabbits
NAME
is caged chickens or rabbits
sentinel animals
What are the differ types of ARboviral Encephalitis? (4)
(1)EEE (2) SLE (3)West Nile virus (4)Japanse B enchalptis
What does EEE stand for?
Eastern equine Encephaltis
What does SLE stand for?
ST Louis. Enceohalitis
What is EEE?
Eastern equine encephalits that is more severe affecting mostly younger childern and younger adults
NAME
is more sever form of Arboviral enchpalitis affecting mostly younger childern and young adults
EEE
What is SLE mostly found?
throughout the country but mostly urban areas usally affecting adults
NAME
is a form of Arboviral encphalits that can be found throughout the country but mostly urban areas usally affecting adults
SLE
NAME
is the most unique form of Arboviral enchphalitis
west nile virus
What are the symtpoms of west nile virus?
(1)fever (2)headache (3)weakness (4)sometimes near nausea or rash as it moves to the CNS
NAME
symptoms include fever, headache, weakness. Sometimes near nausea or rash as it moves to the CNS
west nile virus
How is the west nile virus spread?
vectored by 38 species of mosquitoes
NAME
is spread by 38 species of mosquitoes
West nile virus
What is epizootic?
a epidemic in animals
NAME
is a epidemic in animals
epizootic
What has helped to reduce/ find cases of West NIle virus?
Blood banking screening
NAME
cases of arbovrial Encephatlits found in Japan, Korea, and China
Japanese B enchephalitis
Give ex of a fungal disease of the central nervous system?
Cryptococcus neoformans Mengisits
What is Cryptococcus neoformans mengisits
is a yeast like fungus that has a very think capsule that affects the nervous system
NAME
is a yeast like fungus that has a think capsule that affects the nervous system
Cryptococcus neorformans mengitius
How is Cryptooccous neoformans menigitus spread?
the inhlation of fungus in dried infected pegion droppings
NAME
is spread through the inhalation of fungus in dried infected pegion droppings
Cryptococcous neoformans menigitus
Give ex of a Protozoan disease that affects the nervous system?
African trypanosomiasis
What is African trypanosomiasis?
a protozoan disease that affects the nervous system
T or F
Protozon disease of the nervous system are common in the USA
false
How does one detect if they have a protozon disease of the nervous system?
autposy
African trypanosiais also called (1)
sleeping sickness
What does CJD stand for?
Creuztfeldt-Jacob disease
What does BSE?
Bovine spongiform encephalepathy
NAME
is caused by CJD
Sheep scrapie
NAME
is caused by BSE
Mad Cow disease
What is another name for mad cow disease?
Kuru
NAME
is also called Kuru
Mad cow disease
What causes sheep scrapie in humans?
CJD
CJD is found from eating infected (1) w (2)
(1)sheep (2)sheep scrapie
NAME
is caused by BSE
Mad Cow disease
What causes Mad cow disease?
BSE
since the discovery of protienacious infectious particles may be that some genetic are linked to (1)
prions
What causes CJD?
Prp protenacious infectios paricles
NAME
is caused by Prp protienacious infectious particles
CJD