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20 Cards in this Set

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Enzymes are part of what major class of macromolecules

-Lipids
-Nucleic acids
-Proteins
-Carbohydrates
Proteins
Enzymes function to
speed up the rate of biological reactions
_____ is the energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place
Activation energy
VERY VERY IMPORTANT!

HOW DOES AN ENZYME SPEED UP A REACTION?
IT "LOWERS THE ACTIVATION ENERGY" REQUIRED FOR A REACTION.

nothing else!
What is meant by enzyme specificity?
An enzyme only reacts with one reactant
This rigid specificity gives rise to what model of how enzymes work?
Lock and key model
what are the three steps in the lock and key model of enzyme catalyzed reactions?
1.) Enzyme complexes with substrate (fits snug like a ket)

2.) Reaction takes place and products are formed

3.) product dissociates from the enzyme.
How are enzymes named?
Enzymes are named according to the substrate they combine with and with the ending -ase
Enzymes that consist of a single polypeptide chain are called _______________
More complex enzymes are called __________________
Simple enzymes; conjugated proteins
What are the four factors that affect the rate at which an enzyme catalyzes a reaction
Substrate concentration
Enzyme concentration
Temperature
pH
What happens if we add more substrate to a reaction?
The more substate is added the higher the activity of the enzyme.
When does enzyme activity reach a maximum?
When all enzymes are bound to substrate. Addition of more substrate would not increase activity past this point.
How does the level of activity of an enzyme change if more enzyme is added?
More enzyme more activity.
What is the maximum amount of production one can get from adding enzyme?
No more production can occur once all substrate is bound to an enzyme.
How does the temperature effect an enzyme's activity?
As the temperature increases enzyme activity increases as the enzyme and substrate have more energy/movement to find one another.

This is up to a limit. Past the OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE, activity decreases as the enyzyme DENATURES.
How does pH affet the activity of an enzyme?
Enzymes function best at their individual pH. Any deviations from their ideal pH will lower activity.
A _________ is a compound that slows down or stops enzyme activity
inhibitor
What are the two types of enzyme inhibition
Competitive Inhibition
Noncompetitive Inhibition
_______________________ involves the inhibitor competing with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme
Competitive inhibition
____________________ involves the inhibitor binding to the enzyme at a site other than its active site
NON-COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR