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18 Cards in this Set

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Jack Michael states that when students learn little in courses there is a tendency in certain populations to attribute the problem to supposed inferred inner agents within the student, such as:
1 - Lack of intellectual ability
2 - lack of motivation
A alternate approach ...
is an environmental analysis.

--an inspection of environmental contingencies that are supposed to maintain class attendance and effective out-of-class study
The difference between High School and College
A. heavy reliance on text and lectures (tests as a major source of grades)
B. students ineffective at studying lecture notes and taking tests
C. many hours of outside class work (homework)
Most effective motivation for student study behavior is ... ?
The course grade.
Five frequently listed supposed motivating factors. What is wrong with each of them?
Social Reaction
Approval of significant others
Intrinsic Interest
Long-range Goals
Short Term Advantage
Social Reaction
a. pretty skimpy
b. the instructor has little control over what the student does outside the classroom
Approval of Significant Others
a. most students don't live with parents anymore, so they don't have the same parental discipline as they did in high school.

b. A student's roommate usually isn't going to encourage a student systematically to study and overcome a study habit deficit, particularly when aversive countercontrol takes place
Intrinsic Interest
a. students don't find the course interesting enough to spend sufficient enough time on it, at least to a sacrificial level

b. even if the course is interesting enough, something else may come up that is even more interesting. The studying (text) will still be there when the student returns.

c. the student falls victim to "spontaneous social gathering"
Long-range goals
a. hard to relate your degree, future job, graduate school, etc to tonight's studying

b. "it won't matter later on if I don't understand this graph tonight"

c. "I will still be able to get a job if I don't study tonight." (postponement)
Short Term Advantage
little offered in most areas
Norm-referenced grading
A grade that reports the student's standing in the course relative to the accomplishments of the other students (curved)
Criterion-referenced grading
Involves grade assignment according to an absolute standard, irrespective of the performance of other students
Friendly and Vicious Competition
-friendly competition is a result of criterion-referenced grading.

-vicious competition is a result of norm-referenced grading, as an increase in one student's grade will result in a decrease in another's
Procrastination Scallop
Task completion and time passage space.

The longer a student waits to work on a task, the more aversive the situation becomes.
What needs to be true for grades to be effective?
1. Grades are important to student
2. Task completion must have a positive correlation with exam grade (study to exam)
3. Exam grade must have impact on overall grade
4. Frequent tests
3 things, 4th is a possiblity
Students go for good grades when ...
the contingencies and repertoires are there.
What are 3 false notions of education?
1. learning should be fun
2. lectures & teaching are the same
3. grades are not important
"The world runs on fear"

"gentle persuasion"

What does this refer to?
The main control professors have over their students, is aversive (e.g. using exams to encourage studying).

It is up to professors to effectively use that control to increase learning.