Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/14

Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: describe the traits and outcome.
- make antibodies against RBCs
- complement proteins lyse antibody-coated RBCs
- less oxygen delivered to tissues
Myasthenia gravis: describe the traits and outcome.
- antibodies bind to acetylcholine receptors on muscle cells and prevent them from responding to neurotransmitter
- may result in paralysis
Lupus: describe the traits and outcome.
- antibodies against many self components
- kidney blockage
Diabetes: describe the traits and outcome.
- self-reactive Th1 cells
- inflammatory response due to cytokines
- tissue damage (destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing cells)
SCID: describe the traits and outcome.
- no functional B or T cells due to error in gene rearrangement
- massive infection results
Immunoglobulin deficiency: describe the traits and outcome.
- failure to make IgG or IgA
- recurrent infections
Complement deficiency: describe the traits and outcome.
- failure to make complement proteins
- recurrent bacterial infections
AIDS: describe the traits and outcome.
- HIV infects macrophages => T helper cells => virus hides inside cells
- loss of Th cells
- B cells cant make antibodies
- macrophages cannot kill intracellular bacteria
- opportunistic infections lead to death
What was the old idea for AIDS treatment? What was the problem?
targetting gp120 protein. it mutates too rapidly.
What is the current AIDS treatment?
reverse transcriptase blockers (AZT, ddI) + protease inhibitor
What are the two new targets for AIDS treatment?
targetting CCR5 and CXCR4 cytokines
Why cant we target CD4 in the cure for AIDS?
CD4 is needed for T cells to interact with APCs
What is the first cell that HIV infects?
macrophages
Are our antibodies effective against HIV? Why / why not?
No. The virus hides inside cells.