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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the six important environmental factors for gene regulation?
pH
oxygen
nutrients
iron availability
osmolarity
temperature
Bordetella pertussis morphology
gram-negative coccobacilli
What disease does Bordetella pertussis cause?
pertussis (whooping cough)
What demographic is an important reservoir for Bordetella pertussis?
adults
What demographic is most strongly effected by Bordetella pertussis infection?
children under 5 years of age
What is the host range of Bordetella pertussis?
humans
Does Bordetella pertussis survive in the environment?
no
What is the mode of transmission of Bordetella pertussis?
aerosols or direct contact
What are the four major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis?
adhesins (particularly for ciliated cells)
several toxins (ie pertussin)
LPS
tracheal cytotoxin (a peptidoglycan fragment)
___ ___toxin is a peptidoglycan fragment from Bordetella pertussis
tracheal cytotoxin
B. pertussis attaches to ___ cells of the ___ by an adhesin called ___
epithelial cells
URT
filamentous hemagglutinin A (FHA)
B. pertussis enters the cell after epithelial attachment (T/F)
F. It stays attached to surface.
Bordetella pertussis produces a ___toxin called ___ which induces synthesis of cAMP in the host cell.
exotoxin
pertussin
What is the function of pertussin in Bordetella pertussis infection?
induces cAMP synthesis in host cell

causes more production of receptors for FHA
How is pertussin similar to cholera toxin?
both induce cAMP production

similar in structure as well
What Bordetella pertussis toxin leads to more attachment of bacteria?
pertussin production -> ++cAMP -> ++receptor for FHA -> B. pertussis attachment with FHA adhesin -> pertussin production
What does Bordetella pertussis tracheal cytotoxin do?
specifically kills ciliated cells, leading to extrusion from epithelium
What does Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin do?
triggers increased mucous production, which inhibits leukocyte movement and phagocytosis
What does Bordetella pertussis dermonecrotic toxin do?
causes hemorrhage of blood vessels -> cell death, tissue destruction
What is the length of the Bordetella pertussis incubation period?
7-10 days
Are disease symptoms present during Bordetella pertussis incubation?
no
What is the first stage of Bordetella pertussis infection called?
catarrhal phase
What is the second stage of Bordetella pertussis infection called?
paroxysmal phase
What is the only certain method for making a pertussis diagnosis?
isolation of B. pertussis from nasopharyngeal swabs or secretions, and subsequent growth and identification with specific antisera
Why are polymerase chain reaction and serology identification methods not used for Bordetella pertussis identification?
lack of standardization
Bordetella pertussis virulence factors are regulated by the "___" sensor-regulator system
bvg
The ___ (___) protein detects changes in environment, then phosphorylates the ___ protein
sensor (kinase)
regulator
How does the regulator protein regulate virulence factor expression?
transcriptionally activates FHA, pertussis toxin, adhesins etc. by binding DNA in promoter regions of each of the operons for the virulence factors
T/F: In Bordetella pertussis the bvg system is always 'on'
T
T/F: Bordetella pertussis is found in the environment
F
Why is it advantageous for Bordetella pertussis to always express its virulence genes?
not found in environment (only humans)
Define operon
a group of key nucleotide sequences including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more genes
Define coccobacillus
a baccilus (rod-shaped) that is so short it appears to be a cocci (sphere shaped)
Bordetella pertussis evades host defences by colonizing a certain area. Describe this.
preferential binding to ciliated cells between the entrance to the airway and the beginning of the lungs
Describe Bordetella pertussis treatment
primarily supportive
sometimes antibiotics
Describe the Bordetella pertussis vaccine (3 key components)
purified antigens (pertussin toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin)
What is pertactin?
an adhesin molecule of Bordetella pertussis
Are whole-cell preparations of Bordetella pertussis used in vaccination?
no
Why is it advantageous for Bordetella pertussis to always express its virulence genes?
not found in environment (only humans)
Define operon
a group of key nucleotide sequences including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more genes
Define coccobacillus
a baccilus (rod-shaped) that is so short it appears to be a cocci (sphere shaped)
Bordetella pertussis evades host defences by colonizing a certain area. Describe this.
preferential binding to ciliated cells between the entrance to the airway and the beginning of the lungs
Describe Bordetella pertussis treatment
primarily supportive
sometimes antibiotics
Describe the Bordetella pertussis vaccine (3 key components)
purified antigens (pertussin toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin)
What is pertactin?
an adhesin molecule of Bordetella pertussis
Are whole-cell preparations of Bordetella pertussis used in vaccination?
no