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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is power?
Power – The capacity of an individual to influence the behavior of others in an organization.
What is politics?
Politics – The unsanctioned use of one’s power and authority to achieve desired ends.
In the "Animal House" video clip, what kinds of power were displayed?
Flounder and Nedermeir
- military

Legitimate power- emphasizing position (power) through symbolism

Coresive Power- using fear to get people to do what they want/need them to do
What are the four position bases of power?
1. Legitimate power
2. Reward power
3. Coercive power
4. Information power
Position bases of power?
how to increase and sustain ability to maintain power base
define legitimate power
- given power thru title; manager, supervisor
- refers to the extent to which others perceive that you have the right to influence them
Define reward power
- refers to the extent to which others perceive that you control POSITIVELY VALUED OUTCOMES and that you are willing to provide them
Define Coercive power
Nedamier in "Animal House"
- refers to the extent to which others perceive that you control negatively valued outcomes and that you are willing to provide them
Define information power
- refers to extend to which others percieve that you possess nonexpert information which they need and that you are willing to share w/ them
What is the key point about power?

(twilight zone clip?)
-Power is based on perception
-Have power to the extent people believe they have power, influence
Where does the capacity to influence come from?
Everyone needs adaquate power base
What are the 4 personal Bases of power?
1. Rational persuasion
2. Referent power
3. Expert Power
4. Charisma
Define Rational Persuasion
- refers to extent to which others perceive that you have the ability to use logic and conceptual...
Define Referent Power
- refers to extent to which others can be influenced based on the fact that they niew you in a positive light
Define expert power
- refers to extent to which others perceive that you possess expert info which they values and that you are willing to share it w/ them
Define Charisma
- refers to the extent to which others percieve that you possess an ability to inspire them based on your enthusiasm, confidence and strength of convictions
What are the 3 political strategies for dealing w/ your boss?
1. Understand the boss

2. Support the boss

3. Help the boss succeed
What are the 4 political strategies for dealing w/ coworkers?
1. Ask for advice.

2. Exchange favors.

3. Be a team player.

4. Make a good showing at social events.
What are the 3 political strategies for dealing w/ your employees?
"Disclosure movie clip"
1. Solicit opinions.

2. Fight for their demands.

3. Give out recognition
How did the video clip for "Disclosure" portray strategies related to employees?
Michael Douglas' response
- he was ready for her actions b/c of his connection, good relationship w/ his employees
- dealing w/ employees
What are 3 political strategies for dealing w/ higher-ups?
1. Shine at meetings
2. Show an interest in the company and its services or products- be proactive
3. Get your name in front of influential people
What are the 8 general strategies for managing politics in organizations?
1. don't close your eyes to politics
2. use outside experts
3. make things visible
4. control the agenda
5. reduce ambiguity
6. walk the talk
7. build coalitions
8. challenge political behaviors
What are the 4 social influence tactics?
1. Rational Persuasion
2. Liking and Ingratiation
3. Emotional Appeals
4. Social proof
Define Organizational Politics
Organizational politics refer to activities that people perform to acquire, enhance, and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainty or disagreement.
Since the focus is on people’s preferred outcomes rather than those of the organization, organizational politics may or may not involve activities that are contrary to the best interests of the organization.
What are the 2 kinds of determinants of organizational politics?
1. Individual determinants
2. Organizational determinants
What are the 4 kinds of individual determinants of organizational politics?
1. Machiavellianism
2. Self-monitoring
3. Need for Power
4. Individual values
Individual Determinants: Machiavellianism
- Machiavellians believe that ends justify means and they should always “look out for number one”
- Al Neuharth argued that CEOs commonly employ Machiavellian behavior and that “Being Machiavellian, as a general offense, is not all bad.”
- Machiavellians see political behavior as pragmatic and appropriate.
- Machiavellianism has been related to the decision to offer kickbacks and lower scores on ethical orientation.
Individual Determinants:Self-Monitoring
-high self-monitors are chameleon-like, adjusting their behaviors in ways to induce positive reactions from others.
- High self-monitors have been shown to be more apt than low self-monitors to engage in manipulation and filtering of information that they transmit upward to create a favorable impression.
Individual Determinants:Need for Power
- Need for power is the desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, and to be responsible for them.
-Personalized power seekers try to dominate others for the sake of dominating, and derive satisfaction from conquering others.
- Socialized power seekers satisfy their power needs in ways that help the organization. They may show concern for group goals, find goals to motivate others, and work with a group to develop and achieve goals.
- We would expect more political behavior from personalized power seekers than from socialized power seekers.
Organizational Determinants: Organizational Values
- Bottom-line mentality. Sees financial success as the only value to be considered; rules of morality are simply obstacles on the way to the bottom line.
- Exploitative mentality. A selfish perspective that encourages using people to benefit one’s own immediate interests.
- Madison Avenue mentality. Says, “It’s right if I can convince you that it’s right.” Focuses on making others believe our actions are moral.
What are the 5 organizational determinants of organizational politics?
1. Organizational values
2. Ambiguity
3. Counternorms
4. Competition
5. Level in the organization
Organizational Determinants: Norms
- Openness, honesty, candor
- Follow the rules
- Be cost-effective
- Take responsibility
- “All for one and one for all”
- Maintain an appearance of consensus; support the team
- Take timely action
Organizational Determinants: Counternorms
- Secrecy and lying; “play your cards close to your chest”
- Break the rules to get the job done.
- “Spend it or burn it”
- Avoid responsibility; “pass the buck”
- Achieve your goals at the expense of others
- Maintain high visibility; “grandstanding”
- “Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow”
What are Pfeffer's 3 Political strategies?
1. Make power unobstrusive
2. build a base of support
3. build legitimacy
Pfeffer’s Political Tactics
- Selectively use objective criteria
- Use outside experts; they have expertise,they appear to be objective,
they are expensive
- Control the agenda; keep items off the agenda that you don’t want discussed,place items on the agenda in ways to get desired amount of discussion, place a weak “dummy” proposal on the agenda before a key proposal you want to be approved
- Form coalitions
-external coalitions; these bring in new resources, may cause resentment
-internal coalitions; these may seem less overtly political than external coalitions,one form of internal coalition is coalition through promotions
- Coopt dissenters
- Use committees
What are the 3 questions to ask (consequtively) to determine whether a political act is ethical?
1. Utility: Does the act optimize the satisfaction of all constituencies?
2. Right: Does the act respect the rights of indivds involved?
3. Justice: Is the act consistent w/ the canons of justice?

--> if all are yes- then the political act is ethical
What are 4 potential benefits of political activity?
Political activity may:
- act in a Darwinian way to ensure that strongest members of an org are brought into positions of leadership.
- ensure that all sides of an issue are fully debated.
- stimulate necessary change that is blocked by those currently in power.
- ease the path for the execution of decisions.
ID the 7 elements of the bottom line process model for managing organizational politics.
1. Learn the culture and the "rules of the game" for success in the organization
2. establish credibilty and an overall positive impression in the eyes of others in the org
3. build a base of support by networking, forming alliances, etc., w/ key players
4. create and implement formal and clear policies, procedures, etc., to reduce ambiguity
5. be open and visible w/ employees when dealing w/ key issues that affect them
6. act in ways consistent w/ what is verbally communicated to employees (walk the talk)
7. use defensive behaviors as protection against dirty political players in the organization