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117 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 components of force according to Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation?
1) EXPECTANCY: whats the probability that I can acheive my goal, if I try?
2) INSTRUMENTALITY: If I acheive my goal, whats the probability that it will lead to outcomes?
3) VALENCE: How much do I value the outcomes? (need theory)
What are the 3 managerial implications of the Expectancy Theory?
1) Enhance motivation by managing force (expectancy, instrumentality, and valence perceptions)
2) Enhance/facilitate motivation--> performance by managing/addressing skills and abilities and role perceptions
3) Facilitate performance--> satisfaction by linking outcomes which are valued and equitable to performance
In the "National Lampoon's Christmas" clip, which components of force are the primary determinants of Clark's motivation?
every year monetary bonus
-high expectancy
-high instrumentality
-high valence
According to Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Theory, what are the core job dimensions?
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance

Autonomy

Feedback
According to Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Theory, what are the 3 "Critical psychological states"?
- experienced meaningfulness of the work
- experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work
- knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
What are the 4 Personal and work outcomes in H and O's Job Characteristics Theory?
- High internal work motivation
- high-quality work performance
- high satisfaction with the work
- low absenteeism and turnover
What are the 2 managerial implications of the Job Characteristics Theory?
- Design jobs that possess high levels of the core job dimensions
- select employees with high growth need strength (GNS)
What are the 7 practical implications of the expectancy theory?
- Recognize that three conditions are necessary for motivation to perform.
- Assess perceptions of each of these conditions.
- Identify gaps between employee and management perceptions.
- Make sure you are giving employees what they want.
- Ask what factors may be weakening expectancy perceptions.
- Ask what factors may be weakening instrumentality perceptions.
- If employees appear to be poorly motivated, work backward.
ID and discuss the 5 steps in the bottom line Process model for Expectancy theory
1) ID desired level of employee motivation
2) Provide training, direction, and opportunities to succeed to enhance employee's belief that he/she can achieve high job performance
3) Promote employee's belief that job performance matters by using appropriate reward policies and practices
4) Use organizational reward systems and job design to link positively valued consequences to employee job performance in an equitable manner
5) Promote managerial support to ensure that employee motivation results in high job performance
ID the 5 implementing principles for effective job redesign
- combining tasks
- forming natural work units
- establishing client relationships
- virtically loading the job
- opening feedback channels
ID the 5 core job characteristics needed for job redesign
- skill variety
- task identity
- task significance
- autonomy
- feedback from the task itself
ID which job characteristics go with with implementing principles
1) Combining tasks
- skill variety
2) Forming natural work units
- task identity
- task significance
3) Establishing Client Relationships
- skill variety
- autonomy
- feedback from the task itself
4) Vertically loading the job
- autonomy
5) opening feedback channels
- feedback from the task itself
What are the 6 stps in the bottom line process model for job Characteristics theory?
1) Design jobs to reflect high levels of the 5 core job dimensions
2) ensure that employees possess high growth-need strength
3) Assess employee perceptions of the 5 core dimensions and personal and work outcomes
4) ID opportunities to redesign the job to increase core job dimensions
5) Implement the job redesign
6) Evaluate the effectiveness of the job redesign
What is stress?
Stress refers to the pattern of emotional states, cognitions, and physiological reactions occurring in response to stressors.
What is the PRIMARY attribute of stress?
The PRIMARY attribute of stress is that it is physiological in nature.
Why is stress important?
43% of all adults suffer adverse effects from stress.
75-90% of all physician office visits are for stress-related ailments.
Stress costs U.S. industry more than $300 billion dollars per year, or $7,500 per worker.
U.S. workers put in an average of 47 hrs./week. On an annual basis, U.S. workers work one month more than Japanese and three months more than German workers.
Incidents of “going postal,” “desk rage,” and “office rage” continue to increase in the workplace.
What are the major components of the Stress Process Model?
1. Stressors
2. Stress
3. Stress Reactions
4. Personality Characteristics
In the "Stop at Willoughby" video clip from the Twilight Zone, how does Gart's work situation illustrate the various aspects of the stress process model?
lack of social support?
What are the 9 types of stressors?
1. Role Conflict
2. Role Ambiguity
3. Underload Stressors
- quantitative underload
- qualitative underload
4. Overload Stressors
- quantitative overload
- qualitative overload
5. Responsibility for others
6. Lack of Social Support
7. Sexual Harassment
8. Unpleasant Physical working conditions
9. Causes of stress outside work (personal stress)
In the video clip for "The Rock", what type of stressor is displayed?
Qualitative overload-- not field agent, scientist
What expected to do exceeds believed capability--> Qualatative
Responsibility for others
What does intense and prolonged work related stress cause?
Job Burnout
What are the 4 symptoms of or 'red flags' (what to watch out for in employees) of burnout?
1. Physical Exhaustion
(fatigue,lack of energy)
2. Emotional Exhaustion (depression, feelings of hopelessness)
3. Attitudinal Exhaustion (cynicism, neg views of others, of one's own work)
4. Feelings of low personal accomplishment
What does job burnout result in?
Reduced performance; other negative effects (workplace violence- people who snap)
What are the 3 stress management techniques?
1. Reduce or eliminate stressors
2. Treat the person's reactions to stress
3. Modify the person's ability to cope with stress
What are some ways to reduce or eliminate stress?
- job redesign
- flexible work arrangements (flextime, compressed work schedules) fewer days- more hrs/day; let people work when they're most productive
- work-life balance programs (onsight child care facilities)
What are/is a way(s) to treat the person's reactions to stress?
Employee Assistance Programs
ex - release tension or deal w/ in healthy way
- wellness programs
- smoking sensations
- fitness/ healthclubs
What are 3 ways to modify the person's ability to cope with stress?
1. Stress Management Workshops
2. Employee Assistance Programs (counseling services- indiscrete manner)
3. Wellness Programs
According to the NBC news piece, what can make your job more enjoyable?
bringing your dog to work
According to the text, why is it important to manage stress and burnout?
- Stress is a cause of psychological probs as well as physical reactions, such as ulcers, high blood pressure, backaches, and heart disease.
- An estimated 75 to 90% of visits to doctors are somehow stress related.
- It has been implicated in workplace violence and employee suicide.
- Total stress-related costs to U.S. businesses are $200 to $300 billion annually.
According to the text, stress is associated with...
Stress is associated with high levels of dissatisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, lost productivity, and lawsuits.
According to the text, stress and burnout may result in a climate that...
It may result in a climate that stifles creativity.
What are stressors?
environmental factors (deadlines, noise, rules, demanding bosses, and the like) that raise stress levels.
When faced with stressors, our body undergoes a complex set of reactions aimed at preparing us to engage effectively in ...?
"fight or flight" - striking back at the stressor or escaping it
What are the personality characteristics of people that deal well with stress?
-low levels of type A behavior pattern
- high levels of hardiness and optimism
- and rapid tension discharge rate
What are the 3 guidelines for managing personal stress?
- Take it seriously
- Manage your time
- develop effective coping strategies
- get fit and stay fit
- let it go
- get a little help from your friends
- think positively
- learn to relax
- manage change
- avoid self-medication
- practice self-management
- get professional help
What are some ways to manage your time in order to prevent/deal with stress?
-conduct a time analysis
-set priorities and plan a time budget
- schedule leisure activities
- ask which tasks can be curtailed
- try to accumulate similar tasks and handle them together
- learn to say no
- don't procrastinate
- learn to delegate
What are the 4 techniques used in order to relax?
- relaxation response
- transcendental meditation, or TM
- Progressive muscular relaxation, or PMR
- Biofeedback
Name some organizational policies and practices for managing workplace stress
- stress management programs
- wellness programs
- Employee assistance programs
Name 5 kinds of Wellness programs
- Assessment activities (health risk appraisal)
- Communication materials
- Self-help materials
- Group programs
- Medical self-care instruction
ID and describe the steps in the bottom line process model for the stress management process.
1. ID major personal and work stressors
2. Implement strategies to reduce or eliminate personal and work stressors
3. Implement strategies to reduce or eliminate negative reactions to stress
4. Develop more effective coping mechanisms for handling stressful situations
5. Use organizational resources for managing stress more effectively
Define Ethics
Ethics are principles of morality or rules of conduct.
What are business ethics?
Business ethics are rules about how businesses and their employees ought to behave.
What was the key point of the Managing ethics lecture?
What is ethical or unethical may vary widely across cultures.
What are the 9 benefits of managing ethics in the workplace?
1.Attention to business ethics has improved society.
Ethics programs:
2.help maintain a moral cause in turbulent times.
3.integrate ethical guidelines in to decision making.
4.help manage values associated with other initiatives such asa TQM, strategic planning, and diversity.
5.promote a strong public image.
6.show employees that management truly supports attention to ethics.
7.are an insurance policy that help ensure that policies are legal.
8.align organizational behaviors with operating values.
9.develop an awareness and sensitivity to ethical issues.
What are the six causes of unethical employee behavior?
A.Organizational Reward Systems
B.A Bottom-Line Mentality
C.Lack of Operational Controls
D.Machiavellian Personality Type
E.Darwinian Organizational Culture
F.Weak Leadership
ID 8 strategies for enhancing ethical behavior in organizations
A.Obtain support of top management.
B.Develop a code of ethics.
Example: Policy
C.Accomplish preferred behaviors in the workplace.
D.Provide ethics training for all managers and employees.
E.Integrate ethics into other management practices.
F.Implement a whistle-blowing process.
G.Consider establishing an ethics management committee.
H.Assign a high-ranking member of management to become an “ethics officer.”
What is communication?
Communication is the process through which messages are transmitted and interpreted by 2 or more individuals
What are the 3 reasons why communication is important.
1. It's not just WHAT you say but HOW U say it that matters
2. if u can't communicate, don't expect others to do what u want them to do
3. Communication skills are one of the best predictors of "success" in the business world
What is the senders role in the communication process?
IDEA – ENCODING OF IDEA – Taking an idea and translating it into an appropriate message.
What is the receivers role in the communication process?
DECODING – IDEA RECEIVED – Interpreting a message and receiving it.
Describe the roles of noise and feedback.
- There are many barriers to communication.
- Feedback is the reply or return message from the receiver.
How do MALES communicate compared to females?
MALES
- Emphasize status
- Nonverbals (less eye contact)
- Use “I”
- Ritual opposition
- Offer advice or solutions
- Direct style of giving orders
How do FEMALES communicate compared to males?
FEMALES
- Downplay their status
- Nonverbals (more direct eye contact)
- Focus on social connections (“we”)
- Ritual apology
- Offer social support
- Indirect style of giving orders
What are the general guidelines for managing the grapevine?
- Take the attitude that it is better to give too much information than not enough.
- Never deny or lie about the truth – your credibility will suffer and mistrust will increase.
- Hold regular meetings to provide updates and to answer questions.
- Go to the source of the rumor, collect information about the “truth” and share the facts with employees.
- Anticipate issues that might provoke gossip and deal with them right away.
What are the general guidelines for effective upward communication?
- Always keep your boss informed of the situation.
- Focus on solutions not problems.
- Follow the chain of command.
- If you have a pressing issue, make an appointment with your boss. Be sure to state your objective and the amount of time needed.
- Play close attention to how you frame your message.
- If you are unsure how your boss will respond to an issue, run it by him/her in writing first.
- When presenting information, be sure to provide written documentation.
- Be as concise as possible.
What are the general guidelines for effective employee communication? (effectively communicating w/ employees)
- Encourage communication from your people (e.g., open door policy, walking around).
- Don’t just tell employees what to do – tell them why.
- Ask for employee opinions (e.g., suggestion systems, brown bag lunches).
- Maintain a positive approach (look, smile, and act interested).
- Demonstrate respect for your associates by listening to them and showing interest in their ideas.
- Don’t voice disagreement with your boss’s instructions to your employees. Voice them to your boss
Discuss strategies for overcoming communication barriers in organizations
- Feedback, repetition of messages, use of multiple channels, and simplified language may reduce problems due to semantics, selective perception and distraction.
- Communication overload may be reduced by careful review of the material needed by the recipient and by use of the exception principle.
- Short-circuiting may be reduced through careful consideration of who has a “need to know.” Electronic data-processing techniques that automatically route messages to certain people may also help.
- Information retention and misrepresentation may require tightened formal controls or organizational audit groups, or they may require the opposite -- fewer controls and more trust.
- Things that lessen one problem are likely to worsen another.
What is downward communication?
Downward communication involves messages from senders relatively high in the organizational structure to receivers in lower positions.
Dowmward communication may be used:
- to give instructions
- to provide information about policies and procedures
- to give feedback about performance
- for indoctrinating or motivating
What is upward communication?
Upward communication involves communication from sources in lower-level positions to receivers in higher positions
Upward communication is often used:
Upward communication is often used:
- to give information on achievement or progress
- to point out problems that are being encountered
- to pass on ideas for improvement of activities
- to provide feelings on work and nonwork activities
What are 4 kinds of downward communications?
- letters and memos
- manuals
- handbooks
- company newletters
What are 3 examples of upward communication?
- suggestion system
- grievances
- attitude surveys
ID and discuss practical guidelines for active listening
Guidelines for Active Listening
- Control the physical environment. Try to minimize noise and other distractions,
- Be alert. Give your full attention, and allot the necessary time to listen.
- Be mentally prepared. Do your homework in advance of the presentation. Anticipate the encounter by learning new terminology and background information about the persons, organization, or issues.
- Be emotionally prepared. Keep an open mind about what is being said, even if it is unpleasant. Give the speaker the opportunity to complete his or her message before raising questions.
- Be attentive. Continually review the speaker’s message, and tie the various segments of the message together. Take notes if necessary, but record only main points.
- Read nonverbal cues. Pay attention to the speaker’s tone of voice, expressions, gestures, and other nonverbal cues.
- Distinguish among facts, inferences, and value judgments. Try to sort out whether what is being said is a fact that can be verified, an inference, or a personal judgment.
- Offer and solicit feedback. The best sort of feedback in a listening situation is to paraphrase the speaker’s message.
ID and describe the steps in the Bottom Line process model for developing active listening skills.
1. Receive the message from the sender
2. Capture the "meaning" of the message based on its content and the sender's nonverbal cues
3. Reality test the understanding of the message by reflecting it back to the sender
4. The sender confirms or disconfirms the accuracy of message interpretation
Define grapevine
In organizational settings, information communicated informally among employees is referred to as the grapevine.
discuss why grapevine is important in organizations.
- they often carry messages that formal systems do not
- they are fast and flexible, and they provide messages that are understandable to employees
- tendrils wind way around formidable barriers, seeking out info from people in the know
- whatever the accuracy of info carried, employees tend to view it as accurate. B/c of this, grapevine info if often powerful
- importance of grapevine varies w/ national culture.
ID and describe the steps in the bottom line process model for developing coaching skills.
1. Use active listening to assess the employee's performance issues
2. work w/ the employee to ID mutually acceptable behavior-based performance goals
3. Demonstrate the appropriate behaviors for the employee
4. Observe employee job performance
5. Provide developmental feedback to the employee to facilitate achieving performance goals
6. Provide positive outcomes for employees based on the achievement of performance goals
ID and discuss the practical guidelines for managing cross-cultural communication
- Learn all you can about the other party’s culture. Many differences across cultures affect communications, including whether the culture is high-context or low-context.
- Try to speak the language. By speaking the language -- even haltingly -- we are more likely to recognize subtle nuances of meaning, to avoid gaffes, and to show a sense of caring and commitment.
- Challenge your stereotypes and assumptions. The goal is to replace your original assumptions and beliefs about the society in question with information received from actual members of that society.
- Withhold evaluation. Try to gather facts while avoiding evaluation. Put on the other person’s hat and try to understand the situation from his or her position.
ID and describe the steps in the bottom line process model for cross-cultural communication skills
1. Study the communication style, customs, norms, and taboos of employees' cultures
2. Attempt to Develop some proficiency in the languages spoken by employees
3. Consider cross-cultural communication differences when formulating and transmitting messages to employees
4. Build additional checks into the communication process to ensure mutual understanding across employees
How can u keep employees up to date on issues that affect them?
U need to actively manage communication w/ your employees to keep them up to date on issues that effect them.
What are the 3 stages of the Charismatic Leadership Influence Process in Conger and Kanungo's Theory of Charismatic Leadership?
Stage 1: Evaluation of status quo
Stage 2: Formulation of organizational goals
Stage 3: Means to achieve
Discuss Stage 1: Evaluation of status quo of the Charismatic Leadership Influence Process.
- Assessment of environmental resources/ constraints and follower needs
- Realization of deficiencies in status quo
Discuss stage 2: Formulation of organizational goals of the Charismatic Leadership Influence Process.
- Formulation and effective articulation of inspirational vision that is highly discrepent from status quo yet within latitude of acceptance
Describe stage 3: means to achieve in Conger and Kanungo's Theory of Charismatic Leadership
- By personal example and risk, countercultural, empowering, and impression management practices, leader conveys goals, demonstrates means to achieve, builds follower trust, motivates followers
In Conger and Kanungo's Theory of Charismatic Leadership, what are the 2 kinds of hypothesized outcomes?
- organizational outcomes
- individual (follower) outcomes
In Conger and Kanungo's Theory of Charismatic Leadership, what are the 4 organizational outcomes?
- high internal cohesion
- low internal conflict
- high value congruence
- high consensus
In Conger and Kanungo's Theory of Charismatic Leadership, what are the 3 Individual (follower) outcomes?
- High emotional attachment to leader
- High psychological commitment to organizational goals
- High task performance
What does MLK do that makes him a charismatic leader?
find out
What are the 3 dimensions of House's Path-Goal Theory?
- Leader's behavior
- Characteristics of Subordinates
- Aspects of the work environment
The 3 dimensions of House's Path-Goal Theory all lead to progress toward goal which leads to...
- high performance
- high satisfaction
Describe the leader's behavior in House's Path-Goal Theory
- Instrumental
- Supportive
- Participative
- Achievement-oriented
Describe the characteristics of subordinates in House's Path-Goal Theory
- Ability
- Personality
Describe the aspects of the work environment in House's Path-Goal Theory
- Task structure
- Formal authority
What are the 3 practical implications of House's Path-Goal Theory?
- Change the situation
- Train the leader to match the situation
- Replace the leader
Discuss the Leader-situation match according to House's Path-Goal theory that is demonstrated in the video clip from "Stripes" w/ Bill Murray
need to find out
What is leadership?
Leadership is the ability to influence others toward the achievement of goals
Describe the difference b/w leadership and management
- Leadership may sound like another name for management, but the terms are generally viewed as distinct.
-Management aims to give consistency and order to organizations; leadership seeks to provide constructive and adaptive change.
-Management is directed toward coordinating activities in order to get the job done; leadership is concerned with the process of developing mutual purposes.
- Management relies more on a one-way authority relationship, while leadership relies more on a multidirectional influence relationship.
- “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right things.”
What are the 3 Leader Motivational Functions in Path-Goal Theory?
- The leader can increase valences associated with work-goal attainment.
- The leader can increase instrumentalities of work-goal attainment for the acquisition of personal outcomes.
- The leader can increase the expectancy that effort will result in work-goal attainment.
What are some of the task and follower Contingency Factors in the Path-Goal Theory?
Some task contingency variables:
- degree of structure
- degree to which the task is intrinsically satisfying
- degree to which the task provides feedback concerning accomplishment

Some follower contingency variables:
- need for independence
- ability, experience, training
- “professional” orientation
ID the 6 steps in the bottom line process model for applying the path goal theory
1. Assess the situation
2. ID task and employee needs
3. Match appropriate leader behavior to the situation
4. Change leader behavior if it does not match the situation
5. If this does not work, train the leader to change his/her behavior
6. If this does not work, replace the leader
In Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory, depending on the situation, what are the 4 kinds of leadership styles?
1. Participating
2. Selling
3. Delegating
4. Telling
According to Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory, when there is a high amount of support required (relationship behavior)and a low amount of guidance required (task behavior)- aka ( followers are able to do the job but require emotional support) what leadership style works best?
Participating works best
- followers are able to do the job but require emotional support
According to Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory, when followers are willing to do the job, and know how to go about it,
Which leadership style works best?
Delegating
According to Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory,
when the followers are neither willing nor able to do the job,
what leadership style works best?
Selling works best
According to Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory,
when the followers are willing to do the job, but don't know how to do it,
what leadership style works best?
Telling works best
What are the 3 practical implications of Hersey-Blanchard?
1. Change the leader's style
2. Change the situation
3. Replace the leader
The Path-goal theory essentially says leaders are effective because of their impact on ...
b/c of their impact on
- subordinates' motivation,
- the ability to perform effectively,
- and satisfaction
The Path-goal theory sees the leader as having what 3 motivational functions?
1. the leader can increase valences associated w/ work-goal attainment
2. the leader can increase instrumentalities of work-goal attainment for the acquisition of personal outcomes
3. the leader can increase the expectancy that effort will result in work-goal attainment
What are the 5 dimension in Watkins and Ciampa's leadership framework for taking charge?
1. Mastering Enablin technologies
2. Managing oneself
to
3. Creating momentum

4. Avoiding the traps
5. Meeting the challenges
In Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework, what are the skills needed to master enabling technologies?
- learning
- visioning
- coalition building
In Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework, what are the skills needed to manage oneself?
- self-awareness
- style
- advice and counsel
In Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework, what needs to happen in order to create momentum?
- secure early wins
- lay a foundation
- build credibility
In Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework, what are some of the traps to avoid?
- getting behind the learning curve
- being isolated
- coming in with the answer
- sticking w/ the existing team too long
- attempting to do too much
- being captured by the wrong people
- falling prey to successor syndrome
In Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework, what needs to be done to meet the challenges?
- acquiring needed knowledge quickly
- establishing new working relationships
- juggling organizational and personal transitions
- managing expectations
- maintaining personal equilibrium - work/life/family
What are the 8 practical implications of Watkins and Ciampa's Leadership framework?
1. A new leader has 2-3 yrs to make measurable progress in changing culture and improving financial performance
2. a new leader should understand the org's current strategy and goals
3. during 1st 6 months, leader must develop and test hypotheses about operating priorities
4. new leaders must balance an intense, single-minded focus on a few priorities w/ flexibility about when and how they're implemented
5. must make key decisions about the organizational architecture of the firm. The leader must decide whether the composition of the inherited team is appropriate.
6. after 6 months, leader must have some personal credibility and momentum for sutained improvements in performance
7. must earn right to transform the org. It is critical to build coalitions supportive of change.
8. There is no best way to manage a leadership transition
What are Charney's 9 Guidelines for effective leadership?
- Have a clear vision of what you are working towards.
- Give credit to those who have earned it.
- Be flexible.
- Be consistent in terms of your principles and values.
- Confront issues as they arise.
- Reflect on and learn from mistakes – admit when you are wrong.
- Walk the talk – be willing to do what you expect of others.
- Let people know how they are doing.
- Treat staff as individuals.
Describe the relationship b/w ethics and firm performance
-study found that companies that had an “ethical commitment” -- (as evidenced by inclusion of ethics codes in the management reports w/in annual reports) -- had much higher levels of performance than did those without such codes.
- some companies w/ an “ethical” commitment had higher scores on Fortune reputation ratings.
- Committing specific unethical acts may have disastrous consequences for organizations and their officers.
Define whistle-blowing and how it can address ethical problems in organizations
-->Whistle-blowers are individuals who report to the press, government, or other parties outside the firm illegal or unethical activity within the firm.
-blowers may find their jobs and careers threatened.
- About 35 states now have laws protecting whistle- blowers.
- The federal False Claims Act allows whistle-blowers to sue government wrongdoers in the name of the United States.
- Opponents of whistle blower protection argue that it may be misused by marginal employees, may result in sidestepping of internal resolution mechanisms, and may lead to “dialing- for-dollars” whistle-blowing.
What are 9 ways to encourage ethical behavior in others?
- Promote, communicate, and reward ethical behavior as a key value.
- Model ethical behavior in public and private.
- Speak out against unethical behavior when you see it.
- Communicate expectations regarding ethical behavior, including through a code of ethics.
- Make sure that goals don’t push employees into unethical behavior; unreasonable goals are often the motivation for lying, cheating, and stealing.
- Encourage ethics training.
- Give employees ways to voice their ethical questions and concerns, such as through use of ethics hot lines and ombudsmen.
- Set up internal programs to resolve ethical conflicts.
- Create a culture of ethics
What are 7 guidelines for ethical behavior?
- Be honest, direct, and open in your dealings with others.
- Take ethical stands on difficult issues.
- Ask whether your actions respect the rights of others.
- Ask whether your actions are just.
- Ask how you would feel if the act was done to you.
- Use your power in ethical ways.
- Apply the sunlight test.
What are the 8 steps in the Bottom Line Process for encouraging ethical employee behavior?
1. Develop a code of ethics
2. Communicate standards for ethical behavior to employees
3. Provide ethics training to employees
4. Model appropriate ethical behavior for employees
5. Design and implement policies that reward ethical employee behavior
6. Design and implement policies that ID unethical behavior
7. Enforce a Zero-tolerance policy for unethical employee behavior
8. Establish and maintain an organizational culture that values ethical behavior
Differentiate leadership from management
Management aims to give consistency and order to organizations; leadership seeks to provide constructive and adaptive change.

Management is directed toward coordinating activities in order to get the job done; leadership is concerned with the process of developing mutual purposes.

Management relies more on a one-way authority relationship, while leadership relies more on a multidirectional influence relationship.

-->“Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right things.”
ID and describe the elements of the "new look" of leadership
Old Look New Look

Traits --> Behaviors
Universal --> Situational
1Way Influence --> Reciprocal Influence
Uniform --> Dyadic
Leading Subordinates -> leading every1
Transactional --> Transformational
What are the 6 steps in the Bottom Line process for Applying the Path-Goal Theory
1. Assess the situation
2. ID task and employee needs
3. Match appropriate leader behavior to the situation
4. Change leader behavior if it doesn't match the situation
5. If this doesn't work, train the leader to change his/her behavior
6. If this doesn't work, replace the leader
ID the 5 key elements of the theory of transformational leadership
1. Attributed charisma
2. Idealized influence
3. Intellectual stimulation
4. Inspirational leadership
5. Individualized consideration
ID the 5 steps in the Bottom Line Process Model for Applying the Transformational Leadership theory
1. Develop a mission that responds to organizational challenges or opportunities
2. Articulate this mission w/ great conviction to employees
3. Provide leadership that inspires employees to embrace the mission
4. empower employees to do what is needed to acheive the mission
5. Provide strong support for employees by showing concern for their needs, goals, and general welfare