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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is The Incredibles an example of?
engagement
Engagement
aspects of the work experience that create a sense of connection to the job and organization
Motivation
accounts for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work
Need
an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire
Lower-order Needs in Maslow's Hierarchy
physiological, safety, and social
Higher-order Needs in Maslow's Hierarchy
esteem and self-actualization
Maslow's 2 Principles
deficit principle and progression principle
Deficit Principle
states a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior
Progression Principle
states that people try to satisfy lower-level needs first and then move step-by-step up hte hierarchy
Alderfer's ERG Theory stands for...
existence needs
relatedness needs
growth needs
Existence Needs
desires for physiological and material well-being
Relatedness Needs
desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships
Growth Needs
desires for continued psychological growth and development
Alderfer's Principle for ERG Theory
frustration-regression principle
Frustration-Regression Principle
an already-satisfied lower-level need can become reactivated when a higher-level need cannot be satisfied
McClelland's 3 Acquired Needs
need for achievement, power, and affiliation
Need for Achievement
the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks
Need for Power
the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people
Need for Affiliation
the desire to establish and maintain good relations with people
McClelland's 2 Forms of Power Need
personal and social
Herzberg's 2-Factor Theory
satisfier factor
hygiene factor
Satisfier Factor
found in the job content, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth
Hygiene Factor
found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary
Which of Herzberg's 2 factors increases job satisfaction?
increasing satisfier factors
Which of Herzberg's 2 factors decreases job dissatisfaction?
improving hygiene factors
Job Design
the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups
Job Enrichment
increases job content by adding work planning and evaluating duties normally performed by the supervisor
5 Core Job Characteristics (J. Richard Hackman)
1. Skill variety
2. Task identity
3. Task significance
4. Autonomy
5. Feedback
Skill Variety
the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities to carry out the work and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual
Task Identity
the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people elsewhere in the organization or in the external environment
Task Significance
the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people elsewhere in the organization or in the external environment
Autonomy
the degree to which the job gives the individual freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and in choosing procedures for carrying itout
Feedback
the degree to which work activities required by the job result in the individual obtaining direct and clear information on his or her performance
Motivation Formula
= expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence
Perceived Negative Inequity
discomfort felt over being harmed by unfair treatment
Perceived Positive Inequity
discomfort felt over benefiting from unfair treatment
Expectancy
a person's belief that working hard will result in high task performance
Instrumentality
a person's belief that various outcomes will occur as a result of task performance
Valence
the value a person assigns to work-related outcomes
Self-efficacy
a person's belief that they are capable of performing a task
Law of Effect
states that behavior followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is not
Operant Conditioning
the control of behavior by manipulating its consequences
Positive Reinforcement
strengthens a behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence
Negative Reinforcement
strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence
Punishment
discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
Extinction
discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence (telling employees to stop approving of another's bad behavior)
What 2 strategies are used to strengthen desirable behavior?
positive and negative reinforcement
What 2 strategies are used to weaken or eliminate undesirable behaviors?
punishment and extinction
Shaping
positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior
Law of Contingent Reinforcement
deliver the reward only when the desired behavior occurs
Law of Immediate Reinforcement
deliver the reward as soon as possible after the desired behavior occurs